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GUIDE 



TO THE DISTRICT OF 



C RAVEN 



Settle and Carlisle Railway, 



( WI TH IL LUSTRA TIONS, J 



BY 



J. RADFORD THOMSON, M.A 



SECOND EDITION. 



LONDON: 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO.; FREDERICK WARNE & CO. 
SETTLE: HENRY GORE. 

1879. 



*** If an y difficulty is experienced in obtaining this Guide, a copy will be 
forwarded direct from the Publisher for Twenty stamps. 



PREFACE. 



r HE Publisher, having 1 for some years past received almost 
daily applications for a GUIDE .BOOK TO CRAVEN, and 
being unable to meet the demand of the public, has 
asked me to prepare a manual for the use of Tourists, who, in 
yearly increasing- numbers, resort to this attractive and inte- 
resting part of Yorkshire. And, as the opening of the Railway 
from Settle to Carlisle the Midland Company's new route to 
Scotland has brought a district formerly little known within 
the range of the ordinary tourist, it seemed a suitable occasion 
to provide a handbook to a part of the country, singularly 
wild, romantic, and interesting. The position of Settle, in the 
very heart of Craven, and at the point of departure of the new 
railroad, suggested that a description of the region penetrated 
by that remarkable line might appropriately be included in 
this volume. 

Although I have myself explored all the more important 
of the localities I have described 1 cheerfully acknowledge 
obligations to many fellow-labourers in this department of 
Topography. 

I have made free use of the observations and researches 
of the late Mr. WILLIAM HOWSON, whose "Illustrated Guide 
to the Curiosities of Craven," published in 1850, has for some 
years been out of print. As a native and a resident, Mr. 
Howson had opportunities for acquainting himself with Craven, 
which he diligently used, and as a geologist and an antiqua- 
rian he was highly qualified for the task he fulfilled. 

It need scarcely be said that I am largely indebted to Dr. 
WHITAKER s " History of Craven," and to Prof. PHILLIPS'S 
"Rivers, Mountains, and Sea-coast of Yorkshire." 

In preparing that part of this "Guide" which relates to 
the new line of railway, I have been largely assisted by the 

1049642 



IV 

painstaking, comprehensive, and interesting work of my 
friend, Mr. F. WILLIAMS, upon "The Midland Railway, its 
Rise and Progress." Use has also been made of SAYERS' 
" History of Westmorland," and JEFFERSON'S " History and 
Antiquities of Leith Ward." 

I have also found sundry books of home travel of consid- 
erable service. I would especially mention Mr. W. WHITE'S 
"Month in Yorkshire,'' Mr. W. DOBSON'S " Rambles by the 
Ribble," Mr. W. S. BANKS'S ' Walks in Yorkshire," Mr. B. 
J. HARKER'S " Rambles in Upper Wharfedale," and Mr. J. 
CARE'S " Rambles about Ingleton." 

Information has in some places been derived from MUR- 
RAY'S and BLACK'S " Guides to Yorkshire." 

Chapters xiii, xiv, and xv have been reprinted from How- 
son's guide with additions and alterations. 

The district of Craven has long been celebrated amongst 
Botanists for its production of a great variety of interesting 
plants. A capital handbook to these will be found in Dr. 
WATTS' "School Flora,' a book which will be found extremely 
useful by all who have mastered the elements of botanical 
science. The late Dr. WINDSOR of Manchester compiled a 
"Flora Cravoniensis," which shows how thoroughly he had 
explored every nook and cranny of the district surrounding 
Settle. Unfortunately it has only been printed for private 
circulation, but the local publisher of this Guide will be glad 
to favour any enthusiastic Botanist with the loan of a copy. 

In describing the country bordering the Settle and Carlisle 
Railway, I have made use of some articles, which I contributed 
to the " SHEFFIELD AND ROTHERHAM INDEPENDENT.' 

It only remains to add, that, for the sake of variety and 
vivacity, I have, in some portions of the book, written in the 
first person plural. In a " Guide," which is a v*de mecum 
rather than a topographical treatise, this liberty will perhaps 
be pardoned. J. R. T. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 

Description of Craven and its railway communications... I. 

Skipton II. 

Ilkley, Bolton, and Upper Wharfedale III. 

Malham and Gordale IV. 

Settle and Gig-gleswick V. 

Scaleber, Attermire, and the Victoria Cave VI. 

Clapham and Ing"leboroug"h Cave VII. 

Ingleton, Chapel-le-dale, and Kingsdale VIII. 

The lower Ribblesdale IX. 

The Settle and Carlisle Railway X. 

Upper Ribblesdale, Denthead, and Hawes XI. 

The Eden Valley XII. 

Geology of Craven XIII. 

Botany of Craven XIV. 

Dialect of Craven .. . XV. 



VI 



INDEX. 



Addingham 23, 109 

Aire, source of. 41 

Ais Gill Moor 87 

Airton 38 

Amerdale 35 

Austwick 61, 62 

Appleby II, 15, 89, 97, 102 106 
Appleby Church & Castle... 104, 105 

AppletreewicK 31 

Armathwaite go, 109 

Arncliffe 35 

Arten Ghyll 86 

Attermire...... 45, 54, 55 

Attermire Rocks 10 

Harden Fells 10, 24, 32 

Barden Tower 28, 30 

Barnoldswick 55, 74, 75 

Batty Green 85 

Batty Moss 71 

Batty Moss Viaduct 85 

Battle Barrow Bank 89 

Beckermonds 36 

Bell Busk and Railway Station 38 

Ben Rhydding 22 

Bingley Ii 

Birkett Tunnel 87, 88, 101 

Bishopdale 36 

Black Foss 96 

Blea Moor 85, 95 

Bolton 21, 2229 

Bolton Abbey 24, 26, 27, 33 

Bolton Woods and Strid 24, 28 

Bolton Hall 26 

Bolton-by-Bowland 74, 76 

Bowland or Bolland Forest ... 78 

Bowder Stones 62 

Botany of Craven 120 

Breadagarth 72 

Browsholme Hall 78 

Bracewell 74, 77 

Broughton Hall 74 

Brow Gill 95, 96 

Buckden 36 

Buckden Pike 10, 36 

Buckhaw Brow 51, 66 

Burley 21 

Burnsall 32 

Carlisle 10, n, 91 



Castle Hough 75 

Ca'tleberg 45, 47 

Cam Fell 10, 32, 37, 82, 95 

Cat Knot Hole 95 

Cautley Spout 96 

Calton Hall 38 

Catterick or Catrigg Foss 52 

Cattle, Wild (Gisburne Park) 75 

Chaucer quoted 36 

Chapel-le-dale 34, 66, 69, 95 

Clapham and Cave 45, 61, 65 

Clifford Family 15 19 

Clifford, Lady Anne loo, 109 

Clifford, the shepherd lord 30 

Cloud-berries 37 

Collision 33, 34 

Coom Scar 43 

Cosh Knot 10 

Cracoe 33 

Craven 9, 13 

Craven, three weeks tour in 12, 13 

Craven Fault 10, 38, 49 

Craven Archdeaconry (Parishes 

in) .*I3 

Croglin Beck 108 

Cromwell Oliver, fac-simile of 

Autograph 40 

CrossFell 90, 106 

Crosby Garrett 89 

Crowdundle Beck 89 

Dandry Mire Viaduct 87 

Dangerous Cave 49 

Dawkins, Mr., quoted 58, 59, 70, 94 

Dee, river 85, 86 

Deepdale 36 

Denham Wheel 76 

Dew Bottom Scar 34 

Dent 86, 95, 96 

Dent dale 10, 73, 82, 85, 86 

Dent Head 88, 95 

Dent Head Viaduct 86 

Deep Gill 87 

Dialect of Craven 125 

Dib Scar Glen 34 

Doe River 68, 72 

Dobson Mr., quoted " Rambles 

by theRibble" 66, 67 

Douk Cave 36 



Vll 



Douk Gill Scar 94 

Dowker Bottom and Cave 35 

Draughton 23 

Druids' Circle 33 

Dry Gill 31 

Eamont River 89 

Ebbing and Flowing Well... 49 51 

Eden Valley 82, 97 109 

Eden River 10, u, 82, 89 

Eden Hall 90 

Eden Brow 90 

Engineering difficulties 84 86 

Engineering victories 82 

Eshton Hall 19 

Eshton Tarn 20 

Feizor 61, 66 

Flasby Fell 10, 33 

Forest Becks 78 

Fountains Fell 10 

Garsdale 82- 86 

Gargrave 19, 55 

Gate Kirk Cave 72 

Gaping Ghyll . 63 

Gearstones 95 

Geology of Craven no 

Ghaistrill Force and Strid 33 

Gill Beck 31 

Giggleswick 48 51 

Giggleswick School 48, 49 

Giggleswick Scar 10, 34, 49 

Gisburne 74, 75 

Gledstone Hall 74 

Gordale, Little 42, 43 

Gordale Scar 31, 41. 42, 52 

Grassington 33 

Gray quoted 44 

Greenfield Beck ;. 37 

Greenhow Hill 32 

Greta river 68, 69 

Graygarth 72 

Hard Flask 10 

Hardrow Force 96 

Harker Mr., quoted 37 

Hawkswick 35 

Hawes 69, 87, 96 

Halton Gill 35 

Halton Place 78 

Hanlith 39 

Hebden 32 

Hellifield 52 

Helln Pot, Awful Chasm ... 94, 95 

Henry VI 77 

High Side 45 

H odder river 78 



Horse's Head 35 

Horton 60, 84, 93 

Howson Mr, quoted 29, 93, no, 125 

Howgill Fells 96 

Hubberholme 35, 36 

Hurtle Pot 70, 71 

Hartley Thos., quoted 41 

Ingleton 55, 68 

Ilkley 12, 21 

Ingleborough ... 10, 65, 66, 81, 85 

Ingleborough Cave 62 65 

Inns 12 

Jackson Mr., discovery of Vic- 
toria Cave 55 57 

Janet's Cave 43 

Jackdaw Hole 95 

Jingle Pot 70, 71 

Keighley n 

Kettlewell 34, 36 

Kettlewell dale 36 

Kilnsey 34 

Kilnsey Scar or Crag 10, 34 

Kingsdale 68, 72 

Kirkby Malham 39 

Kirkby Stephen ... 84, 87, 97, 102 
Kirkoswald Castle & Church 90, 106 

Lambert family 39 

Langcliffe 52, 60, 82 

Langcliffe Hall 52 

Langstrothdale 36 

Lawkland 61 

Lammerside Castle 99, 101 

Lazonby 90, 97, 106 

Linton 32 

Litton 35 

Litton dale 10, 35 

Long Marlon 89 

Long Meg and her daug .ters, 

Dmidical remains 90, 109 

Lo ngwathby 90 

Long Preston 52, 74, 78 

Lune River n 

Lynn Gill 95 

Malham 38, 44 

Malham Cove ... 10, 34, 38, 40, 41 

Malham Tarn 41,43 

Marton, East and West 74 

Mallerstang Edge 87,98 

Micklefell 65, 81 

Midland Railway n 

Mitton and Church 78 

Moorcock Inn 87 

Moughton Fell 35, 82 

Mountains 10 



Vlll 



Nappa 78 

Nateby IOI 

Newbiggin 89 

Newby Head 95 

Norber 62 

Normanton Dining Room... 79, 80 

Norton Tower 33 

Nunnery Walks near Kirkos- 

wald 106, 108 

Ormside 89 

Otley 20, 21 

Outershaw and Beck 37 

Outhgill 99 

Paley, Archdeacon 47, 48 

Parishes in Craven 13 

Paythorne 78 

Pendle Hill 16, 45, 55, 81 

Pendragon Castle 88, 99, 100 

Pennine Chain 9, 81 

Pennine Fault 87 

Pennegent 81, 93 

Phillips quoted 34, 65, 66, Ho 

Pudsay's Leap 77 

Pudsay, Sir Ralph 78 

Pullman Car 79 

Rainfall 88 

Railway, Settle and Carlisle ... 79 

Railway communication n, 12 

Rainsber Scar 77 

Raisgill 35, 36 

Raisegill Hag 10 

Rathmell ?8 

Ravenwray 72 

Ribblehead :.. 68, 85, 95 

Ribblesdale 10, n, 34, 82, 83 

Ribblesdale the lower 74 78 

Rimington 77 

Rumbold's Moor 10, 14, 21 

Rise Hill Tunnel 86 

Robin Hood's Mill 51 

Rye Loaf or Rye-loaf . . 10, 32, 54 

Rylstone 33 

Rylstone Fell 33 

Sawley Abbey 76 

Scaleber Force 45, 54 

Scars 10 

Scotsthrop 38 

Scoska Moor 10 

-Sel Gill 95 

Settle ii, 45, 46 

Settle Station 82 

Selside 84 



! Sedbergh 87, 96 

Simon's Seat ... 10, 24, 29, 31, 32 

I Skirfare, the 35 

Skipton II, 14 20 

Skipton Castle 1518 

Skyreholme 31 

Slaidburn 78 

Smardale Viaduct 88 

Stackhouse 51, 60, 82 

Starbottom 36 

Stainforth 35, 51, 60 

Stainforth Foss 51 

Staircase Cave 49 

Strid, the, Bolton Woods ... 24, 28 

Staffold Manor House 107 

Stenkreth or Stankthred 101 

Stump Cross Caverns 31 

Sugar loaf 54 

Thirl Pot 94 

Thornton Foss 7 2 

Thornton Beck 68 

Thorns Gill 95 

Thorpe 32 

Thund Pot 94 

Tiddeman Mr. quoted 59 

Threshfield 33 

Trailers Gill 31 

Trumla Ha' 34 

List of Mid. Railway Tunnels 9 2 

Upper Ribblesdale 93 95 

Uther Pendragon 100 

Viaducts, List of, Mid. Railway 91 

Victoria Caves 35, 55 59 

Waddington Hall 77, 7*- 

Warrendale Knots 55, 60 

Wensleydale 10, 96 

Winskill 60 

Weathercote Cave 70, 71, 73 

Wenning River 10, n 

Wharfe Gill 62 

Wharfe, hamlet 61 

Wharfedale 21 37 

Wharfedale, upper 31 37 

Wharton Hall 88, 97, 99 

Whitaker quoted 23, 75 

Whernside in Wharfedale 36 

Whernside 10, 71, 73, 81, 85 

Wigglesworth 52, 78 

Williams Mr. quoted 84, 85 

Wild Boar Fell 87, 100 

Yockenthwaite 36 

Yordas Cave 72,73 



CHAPTER I. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE DISTRICT AND ITS RAILWAY 
COMMUNICATION. 



'HERE are two ways of describing and defining- a 
locality : its artificial boundaries may be mentioned, 
and its several artificial divisions may be enumerated; 
or, its position may be brought before the mind's eye, 
its characteristic features may be outlined, after the 
manner of physical geography, by a statement as to its 
mountains, its valleys and its rivers. 

To proceed upon the former the conventional method. 
Craven is properly an ecclesiastical appellation ; it is the 
name of a Deanery, including 27 parishes, several of which 
include subordinate "districts," in the north-west of Yorkshire. 
The term is, however, somewhat loosely and popularly 
applied, and is considered to include nearly the whole of 
the Wapontake of Staincliffe and a part of Ewcross, with 
smaller portions of Skirack and Claro. 

On the south and west the boundary of Craven extends to 
the County Palatine of Lancaster. It will, however, be more 
interesting to the reader to be informed of the situation and 
the distinctive features of the region about 10 be described 
in detail. 

The range of mountains which runs north and south, from 
the borders of Scotland into Derbyshire, is known as the 
Penine Chain. It forms the watershed of the north of 
England : the rivers rising- on its slopes finding their way 
either eastward into the German Ocean, or westward into 
the Irish Sea. A glance at the map will show that there 
are two rivers, the Aire and the Wharfe, which, rising in the 
highlands of Yorkshire, flow into the Ouse, and so into the 
Humber; and that there is a river, the Ribble, which flows 
into the sea below Preston, in Lancashire. 



10 

The district, to which this book proposes to be a guide, 
includes the sources and the earlier portions of the courses of 
these three rivers. There are tributaries to all three, and 
there are other rivers, such as the Wenning, which do not 
flow into any of them. But the above is a definition accurate 
enough. 

But this is offered as a Guide, not only to Craven, but to 
the Settle and Carlisle Railway. Now, that line touches the 
head both of Dentdale and of Wensleydale, but the greater 
portion of it, after Ribblesdale has been penetrated to the 
river's source, follows the course of the Eden, from its rise 
nearly to its outflow into the sea, below Carlisle. 

Wharfedale, Airedale, and Ribblesdale; these are the 
three great valleys of Craven. Now, these valleys thread 
their way amidst mountains which are among the most lofty 
in England, being only exceeded in elevation by the peaks to 
the westward, in the neighbourhood of the Lakes. Ingle- 
borough and Whernside on the west, and Pennygent on the 
east of Ribblesdale ; Rye Loaf and Hard Flask in the vicinity 
of the source of the Aire, and Flasby Fell and Rumbold's 
Moor among the heights that overlook the course of the same 
river; Great and Little Whernside, and Buckden and Rams- 
den's Pikes on the eastern side of the Wharfe ; Buckden 
Birks, Horse Head, and Raisegill Hag, between Littondale 
and the Upper Wharfedale; Simon Seat and Barden Fell 
lower down Wharfedale ; and in a central line through the 
district, south and north, Fountains Fell, Scoska Moor, Cosh 
Knot and Cam Fell ; these may be taken as the more 
prominent and noticeable of these Craven fells and mountains. 

There is a feature of the hill scenery of this district which 
calls for special attention. The traveller will observe in 
several parts of Craven 'scars' or cliffs of a very remarkable 
character. These are precipitous bare escarpments of lime- 
stone rock. The most interesting of these are Kilnsey Crag, 
Malham Cove, Attermire Rocks, and Giggleswick Scar. 
Several of these scars mark the lines of the great Craven 
fault, a displacement of the limestone formation, which has 
left most unmistakeable traces upon the face of the country, 
and which is the cause of not a little of the picturesque 
scenery of Craven. 

The geological character of the district is extremely 
interesting, and will be found described in another chapter. 
The observant traveller will not fail to note the signs of the 



II 

geological formation unmistakeably evident 5n the general 
aspect of the country, and in the prevalent vegetation. He 
will remark the slates of Ribblesdale, the limestone rocks 
which are the feature of Craven, the capping of millstone 
grit upon the summits of several of the loftiest mountains, and 
the conglomerate sandstone which forms the lovely valley of 
the Eden. 

So distinguishing a characteristic is the mountainous and 
craggy nature of this region that it is embedded in the very 
name by which it is designated. Craven is believed to be 
Craig Vaen, "the stony rock," and appears equivalent in 
meaning to Staincliffe, the name of the Wapontake which 
is largely coincident with the ecclesiastical division, the 
Deanery. 

The prevailing character of Craven is pastoral. At Bingley, 
Keighley, and Skipton, there are considerable manufactures, 
and here and there in the valleys the tourist will come upon a 
cotton mill, giving employment to the population. But 
agriculture is the chief occupation of the inhabitants of 
Craven ; and the land is chiefly pasture and meadow land, the 
amount of arable soil being very small. Indeed, in the 
higher valleys there is often not a single ploughed field to be 
seen, look where you will. Cattle and sheep are reared, fed, 
and fattened in abundance. Especially since the great rise 
in the price of meat, it is this department of farming which 
has been found most profitable by the "statesmen" and the 
"dalesmen," of the north-west of England. 

The country bordering the Settle and Carlisle Railway is, 
for the first half of the way, altogether pastoral ; but in the 
valley of the Eden, from Appleby downwards, coin is grown 
in considerable quantity, and the ordinary green crops appear 
to flourish 

The district to which this book professes to be a guide is 
easily accessible by railway from every part of England. 
The Midland Railway runs right through the heart of Craven, 
from Bingley, by Keighley and Skipton to Settle, and thence 
pursues its way to Carlisle, as described in Chapters x., XL, 
and xn. The traveller from London or the midland counties 
will, of necessity take this route, via Normanton and Leeds : 
and the tourist approaching from Scotland will be careful to 
leave Carlisle by the 'new route.' From Lancaster and its 
neighbourhood, the approach to Craven is also by the 
Midland line, up the valleys of the Lune and the Wenning. 



12 

The tourist from Liverpool, Manchester, and most other parts 
of Lancashire, will find the Lancashire and Yorkshire route 
by Colne the most convenient for reaching" Skipton. 

Should the visitor to Craven desire, in the first instance, to 
explore Wharfedale, commencing- at Ilkley, he can reach 
Ilkley from Leeds by the Midland or by the North Eastern 
Railway, or from Harrogate by the latter. 

Once in the district the tourist will find no difficulty in 
reaching any place described in this Guide. The pedestrian 
will often be able to avail himself of the help of the Midland 
Railway in passing over the less inviting portions of his route. 
There is an omnibus which conveys the mails daily from 
Skipton to Wharfedale. Carriages, dog-carts, and waggon- 
ettes may be hired at all the towns and some of the villages 
of Craven ; and saddle horses and ponies may be procured at 
many of the village inns, and will be found very suitable for 
mountain excursions. 

As for the inns, the tourist may confidently reckon upon 
cleanliness and good fare, as well as attentive treatment. If 
he visit the remoter valleys, he must expect humble enter- 
tainment. Mountain mutton, trout from the becks, cream from 
the dairy, heath honey from the hives, are specialities of the 
district ; and he must be hard to please who does not 
acknowledge, at the close of a tour in Craven, that he has 
fared well. 

A THREE WEEKS' TOUR IN CRAVEN AND THE SETTLE AND 
CARLISLE DISTRICT : 

Monday Skipton: Church and Castle. 

Tuesday Bolton, Ilkley, and Ben Rhydding. 

Wednesday... Harden Tower and Simon's Seat; Grassington. 

Thursday ...Wharfedale: Kilnsey, Dowkerbottom, Kettlewell 

Friday Wharfedale, Littondale, and Langstrothdale. 

Saturday ....Bolton Priory and Woods. 

Sunday Rest at Bolton. 

Monday Malham and Gordale, via Skipton and Bell Busk. 

Tuesday Settle: Giggleswick Scar, School, and Well. 

Wednesday ... Attermire, Scaleber, and Victoria Cave. 

Thursday ...Horton, climb Pennegent, Helln Pot. 

Friday A.ustwick, Clapham, the Cave. 

Saturday ....Climb Ingleborough, or a long excursion into 
Lower Ribblesdale. 

Sunday Rest at Clapham 

Monday Ingleton, Thornton, Chapel-le-dale, Weather- 
cote, Gearstones. 



13 

Tuesday Ribblehead, Thorns Gill, Blea Moor. 

Wednesday ..Dentdale. 

Thursday ...Hawes and Upper Wensleydale. 

Friday Kirkby Stephen, Wharton Hall, Pendragon 

Castle. 
Saturday ....Appleby, Long Meg, Lazonby, and Nunnery 

Walks. 
Sunday Rest at Carlisle. 



NOTE TO CHAPTER I. 

The following are the parishes included in the Archdeaconry of Craven, 
which is one of the two Archdeaconries of the Diocese of Ripon, that of 
Richmond being the other : 

Western Division. 
Barnoldswick 
Bolton-by-Bowland 
Bracewell 
Broughton 
Carlton 

Lothersdale 
Gisburne 

Tosside 
Marton 
Mitton 

Grindleton 

Hurst Green 

Waddington 
bkipton 

Christchurch 

Embsay 
Slaidburn with 

Dale Head 
Thornton-in-Craven 
Kellbrooke 



Northern Division. 
Arncliffe 

Halton Gill 

Hubberholme 
Burnsall, with 

Rylstone and 

Conistone 
Gargrave 

Conistone 
Giggleswick 

Langcliffe 

Rathmell 

Settle 

Stainforth 

Horton-in-Ribblesdale 
Kettlewel' 
Kirkby Malhamdale 
Linton 
Long Preston 



Southern Division. 
Addingham 
Bingley 

Holy Trinity 

Cullingworth 

Moughton 

Morton with 

Morton Banks 
Bolton Abbey 
Ilkley 
Keighley 

Eastwood 

Oakworth 

Ingrow cum-Hain- 

worth 
Kildwick 

Cononley 

Cowling 

Silsden 

Sutton 




CHAPTER II. 

SKIPTON. 
Inns:- Devonshire Arms and Black Horse. 

'NDER the south-western slope of Rumbold's Moor, in 
the valley af the Aire and on its left bank, at a 
distance of 26 miles from Leeds and 18 from Bradford 
is Skipton, the capital of Craven. The nam^ (from 
A.~S. seep, sheep) points to the pastoral nature of the district, 
which is and has long- been famous for cattle and sheep. 
There is a fortnightly cattle market, also cattle and horse fairs 
of some importance. The population in 1871 was 9,505, and 
the number of houses 1946. 

Approaching the town from the new and commodious station 
of the Midland Railway, the visitor crosses the Leeds and 
Liverpool Canal, and enters the main street, which is broad 
and would be decidedly handsome but for the "middle row," 
or block of houses in the midst of its lower portion. The 
houses are built of stone, and in the street are some good 
modern buildings, shops, banking-houses, &c. In the suburbs 
are some very neat modern villas. There are several cotton 
factories, giving employment to a large number of hands. 
The quarrying of the limestone for building is one of the 
great industries of Skipton. 

There is a well-endowed Grammar School, formerly free, 
but now, under a new scheme, open to all upon payment of 
moderate school fees. The new school buildings are hand- 
some and commodious 

The Craven Baths and Pump Room have been erected for 
the utilization of the saline sulphuretted spring ; they will be 
found at the ^astern part of the town. 

There are two churches, and places of worship for Wes- 
leyans, Independents, &c. The modern church, Christ church, 
is in the direction of the railway station. 



At the head of the chief street, and in proximity to one 
another, are the two " lions" of Skipton the Castle and the 
Church. 

The Castle of Skipton is chiefly associated with the 
historical family of the Cliffords. Skipton, which was before 
the Conquest the property of Earl Edwin, was granted by 
William the Conqueror to Robert de Romille, who is believed 
to have built the original castle. It passed by descent to the 
family of Albemarle, but in the reign of Edward I. came 
into possession of the Crown. Edward II. bestowed Skipton 
upon his favourite. Piers de Gaveston ; and afterwards on 
Robert de Clifford, who had fought under Edward I. against 
the Scotch, and who afterwards fell at Bannockburn, in 1314. 
Except that an attainder occurred in the first year of Edward IV. 
to Lord John Clifford, who had sided with the Lancastrian 
party, and who was killed the day before the battle of Towton, 
Skipton remained in the possession of the Cliffords for upwards 
of three centuries, and indeed, has remained in the hands of 
their descendents to the present time. 

The best known and most famous of the family have been 
the eighth lord, who fell at the battle of St. Albans ; his son, 
the "black-faced Clifford,'' who fell at Ferrybridge; and his 
son, known as the "shepherd lord," because, during the 
attainder above referred to, he was hidden, by his mother's 
care, among the shepherds of Cumberland for 24 years. The 
next lord was created Earl of Cumberland by Henry VIII., 
and it was by him that the more modern portion of the Castle 
was built. The famous Lady Anne Clifford was the daughter 
of the third Earl, and was successively Countess of Dorset and 
of Pembroke. She was born in Skipton Castle, January, 1590, 
and lived until 1675, when she died at Appleby, where she 
lies buried. She restored this and others of her castles; 
Skipton the more needing it as it had endured a three years' 
siege by the Parliamentarian troops during the Civil War. 

From Lady Anne Clifford Skipton came to the Earls of 
Thanet, her grandsons, whose descendant, Sir Henry Tufton, 
is its present owner. 

As we approach the Castle we feel how completely it must 
have dominated the little town below. There are at the 
entrance two round towers with the gateway between them. 
Over the gateway is a coat of arms, and above this, in large 
letters of stone, forming a kind of parapet and standing out 
in singular relief against the sky, the word DESORMAIS. 



i6 

the family motto of the Cliffords. We ring and are admitted, 
and, after glancing at a grotesque room in the gateway, 
stuck all round with shells, and remarking the groove for the 
ancient portcullis on the inner side of the archway, proceed, 
under the guidance of the janitor, to survey the buildings. On 
the right is a modern residence inhabited by servants, who 
keep it in order for the occasional use of the steward. The 
apartments here contain some interesting tapestry, said to 
date from the time of Henry IV., and some family portraits. 

We ascend a flight of stairs on the left, and enter the old 
Castle buildings. Over the door is a shield engraven with 
amorial quarterings. and an inscription from which we learn 
that the Castle was restored in 165758, by that great 
" restorer of waste places," Lady Anne Clifford. The stairs 
lead up to the Inner Court, which we found cool and shady on 
a hot day of August. In the middle is a fine yew tree, 
estimated to be from 500 to 700 years old, which divides into 
three branches, and almost fills the court with its lofty and 
spreading growth; a stone seat surrounds the trunk. Here is 
an ancient octagonal font, which was removed from the 
private chapel of the Cliffords. Over one doorway in this 
court we observe the stone effigy of the Griffin the Clifford 
crest ; over another the arms of Piers de Gaveston, the 
favourite of Edward II. 

The apartments of the Castle are in an uninhabitable and 
anything but attractive condition , but they are of great 
interest, as shewing the arrangements of a fortified building 
of the period. There are no two rooms upon the same level, 
and there is not one room in the Castle which has not two 
doors, it is said, in order to facilitate escape in case of 
surprise. We were led through a gloomy store-room intq a 
circular guard-room, the walls of which we remarked as being 
ten feet in thickness ; and thence into a bedroom, which, 
tradition tells, was the birth-place of Fair Rosamund, whose 
reputed inner chamber adjoins it. Ascending the staircase 
and passing sundry bedrooms, we reached the leaded roof of 
the watch-tower. Hence we enjoyed a fine view : looking 
south, we saw Skipton streets, mills, and churches below us, 
and the valley of the Aire, with Carleton Moors beyond ; 
looking east, the landscape was soon bounded by the massive 
heights of Rumbold's Moor; northwards, Embsay Moor 
stretched before us ; whilst the prospect on the west was 
bounded by the ubiquitous outlines of Pendle Hill. Just below 



17 

and beyond the Castle, northwards, the landscape is enriched 
by the pretty Skipton Woods, consisting of beech, ash, fir, and 
bastard sycamores. Every room, as we descend from the 
leads, has a separate roof of its own, and there is a promenade 
among the roofs all over the Castle. 

Returning-, we passed through the best bedroom, which had 
formerly a carved oak ceiling-, until, after the surrender of the 
Castle, all the carved oak was burned, of course by Oliver 
Cromwell ! We observed that, as usual, all the outer win- 
dows are merely loop-holes ; all the windows admitting- any 
amount of light open to the inner court. Fancy easily 
re-constructs these old apartments, with their windows not of 
g-lass, but horn, their floors covered not with carpets, but with 
rushes, their walls hung- with tapestry, and their open fire- 
places with blazing- logs upon the dog-irons! 

From a dimly lighted drawing-room a door leads to the 
muniment room, where the deeds and papers relating to the 
estate are said still to be kept. Dark passages led us to the 
circular room which tradition has denominated Mary's room, 
and which, it is fabled, Mary, Queen of Scots occupied as a 
resting place, when on her w r ay southwards in the custody of 
a Clifford. From the window of the morning or breakfast 
room we looked out and remarked water gleaming here and 
there amongst dense foliage. Just under the Castle walls is 
a branch of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal; beyond is a 
small culvert ; and beyond that, part of the old moat, now 
converted into a mill dam. The ancient banqueting-hall, 
which is low and by no means imposing, is still used upon the 
occasions when the tenants of Sir Henry Tufton dine in the 
Castle under the presidency of the steward. A landing, 
passing the buttery hatch, led us to the kitchen, which seemed 
to us the most interesting apartment in the Castle. There are 
two grand kitchen fire-places, one at each end of the apart- 
ment ; and as we looked up the great chimneys to the sky, we 
fancied how, in the old days of rude hospitality, the log fires 
must have roared when the preparations were going forward 
for some lordly feast ! Passing the steward's pantry and 
bedroom, we descended by a flight of steps to the dungeon, a 
damp, musty-smelling prison, some sixteen feet by seven, 
with the solid rock for its floor, and at the entrance, the 
still remaining apertures for bolts of frightful security. 

The bulk of the old Castle is Edwardian, though there is a 
Norman doorway partially concealed by the present entrance. 



18 

Some of the upper portions of the walls are said to be the 
work of Lady Anne Clifford, who restored the building ; they 
are not so massive, which tradition accounts for by saying that 
her ladyship was not allowed to repair the place as a 
stronghold. 

Part of the outer wall towa^ls the town still remains ; it is 
seven feet in thickness. The site of the moat is now occupied 
by the high road, running without and below the wall. 

Close by the Castle is the Church, the tower of which was. 
it is said, battered by the Parliamentary forces during the 
siege already alluded to : the damage was, however, made 
good by the redoubtable Countess, in 1655. 

The Church is approached by a new porch, the gift of Mr. 
Robinson, in 1850; itself handsome enough, but in the 
decorated Gothic style, and scarcely in keeping with the 
Perpendicular building. In the south aisle are four sedilia of 
the I3th century, of admirable design. The whole building 
was repaired in 1665 of course, by Lady Anne Clifford--and 
after being struck by lightning, was again partially restored 
in 1853. A flight of seven steps leads up to the altar. The 
handsome reredos, of Caen Stone, costing 800, was erected 
in 1874, as a memorial of Mr. Henry Alcock by eight of his 
children. The handsome screen has been recently restored. 
In 1876 a new organ was provided at a cost of 700. 

Observe the stained glass windows, four of which are 
Belgian, by Capronnier, of Brussels. The subject of one is 
St. Luke, a memorial to a physician, Dr. Marsden. Another 
is in memory of Mr. Birtwhistle ; the subjects are, " The 
Bearing of the Cross." "The Agony," and "The Appearance 
to Mary." There are also windows by Cox, of London. 

The oaken roof is flat, and is very beautifully carved ; it is 
probably of the i6th century. 

Above the west gallery, upon the wall, is a singular work 
of art. It is a picture, not painted, but burnt into panels of 
sycamore wood, no colour at all having been used, and the 
whole effect, which is by no means contemptible, being 
produced by burning. It is said that a hot poker was the 
instrument employed! The artist was a native of Skipton, 
named Smith. The subject appears to be "The Vision of 
Angels by the Shepherds." 

But the most interesting feature in Skipton Church is its 
monuments. There is an ancient altar slab in the north 
chancel, in which also should be remarked the stones marking 



'9 

the vaults where lie interred the former head-masters of the 
grammar-school of the town. 

A stone tablet upon the wall bears the following" very 
touching 1 inscription : " IMMENSI DOLORIS MONUMENTUM ANGUSTUM. 
HKXRICUS PATER DEFLET FRANCISCUM, CHAROLUJI, HENRICUM, 
A.D. MDXXXI." 

In the chancel are three monumental tombs of the Cliffords, 
all of which have been recently restored, under the superin- 
tendence of Sir Gilbert Scott, and at the expense of the present 
Duke of Devonshire. Several brasses belonging to these 
tombs were found at a farm-house in the neighbourhood, and 
were restored to their proper position ; and new brasses, to 
match the old, have been inserted in the vacant spaces. One 
large tomb, that on the north side, is to the memory of Sir 
Henry Clifford, who became first Earl of Cumberland, and 
Margaret, his wife, a daughter of Sir Henry Percy, of 
Northumberland. At the head of this tomb is a brass 
commemorative of three generations. The effigies are all in 
brass ; the head-stone contains an emblematical representation 
of the Trinity. 

On the south side of the chancel is a tomb of black marble, 
that of the third Earl of Cumberland, and father of the famous 
Lady Anne. This monument is remarkable for the heraldic 
adornments it displays. Here are 17 shields of armorial 
bearings ; six on each side, two at the feet, and three at the 
head ! 

Nine of the Clifford family lie in vaults under the chancel of 
this Church. All, excepting one, are enclosed in leads fitting 
the figure of the body. 

Near the tower, is a Library, bequeathed in 1719 by 
Silvester Petyt, whose portrait hangs in the vestry. There 
are some ancient books ; we noticed a history of the world, 
printed in the year 1497. 

GARGRAVE is the next station to Skipton. The village is 
situated among verdant meadows. Tradition tells that there 
were once seven churches in Gargrave, but that six were 
destroyed by the Scots in one of their excursions, the one 
remaining church being spared because dedicated to St. 
Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. 

Half-a-mile from the village was discovered the site of a 
Roman villa, but no traces of it are now to be seen. 

A mile and a half from Gargrave is the seat of Sir Matthew 
Wilson, M.P., Eshton Hall, a spacious mansion in which is a 



20 

fine library of 15,000 volumes, said to be peculiarly rich in the 
natural sciences, topography, and history. There are also 
valuable manuscripts and some fine painting's. 

Above the Hall is St. Helen's Well, a copious opening from 
which a streamlet flows which waters the park. 

Eshton Tarn is a small lake less than two miles in circum- 
ference. Since the draining of Giggleswick Tarn, Malham 
and Eshton remain the only lakes in Craven. 

Distances from Skipton: To Ilkley, 9 miles; to Bolton Bridge, 
6 miles ; to Harden, 6 miles ; to Grassington, 1 1 miles ; to 
Malham, 1 1 miles. 




21 



CHAPTER III. 



WHARFEDALE. 

"T will be convenient to the reader that this chapter should 
be divided into three sections, treating" respectively of 
Ilkley, of Bolton and Barden, and of the Upper Wharfe. 
The Wharfe, it may be premised, is the Verbeia of the 
Romans, and the Guerf of the Saxons. 

I. ILKLEY. 
Inns: Crescent Hotel, Lister's Arms, and Rose and Crown. 

Although the pedestrian may approach Ilkley from Leeds 
by way of Otley Chevin, Otley, and Burley, and as we have 
done more than once in younger days may even walk from 
Leeds in the early summer morning" and reach Ilkley in time 
for breakfast, yet, we will suppose the visitor to arrive by 
train, and to begun his explorations of Wharfedale at this 
modern and beautifully situated watering-place. 

With the swift flowing" Wharfe in the valley below, bordered 
by its bright meadows, with the timbered park of Middleton 
Hall on the northern slope opposite with the heights of 
Rumbold's Moor behind, rising- to an elevation of over 1,300 
feet with its snug hotels and well-placed "water establish- 
ments," Ilkley may well boast of its charming situation. A 
few years ago, and it was a quiet village, with an old-fashioned 
inn, and some primitive lodging houses, and above all, the 
Cold Bath, in the little stone hut on the hill side. Now, there 
are hotels and "establishments," handsome new churches and 
elegant villas; and Ilkley aspires to be " the Malvern of the 
north." However, the valley is as lovely as ever, and the 
moors as breezy and exhilarating; and parties of young 
people may still be met with crossing the Wharfe upon the 



22 

old stepping- stones, or clambering- to the top of the Cow and 
Calf rocks, or gathering bilberries on the moor, as of old. 

Bin Rhydding is a large and imposing looking building, in 
the Scottish Baronial style, devoted to the accommodation of 
patients under the " cold water treatment." It was opened in 
1844, but has been since enlarged. There is a Turkish bath, 
a compressed air bath, and indeed baths of every description. 
Plenty of amusements are provided : billiard rooms, a 
bowling green, a bowling alley, croquet lawns, and a racket 
court, are well adapted to "drive away dull care." There 
are extensive grounds attached to the house, and better still, 
the heathery moors immediately adjoin the estate. 

This well-known and largely frequented establishment is 
situated above a mile to the east of Ilkley ; but it has a railway 
station of its own for the use of the inmates. 

Ilkley Wells House was built some years subsequently, in 
1856. It stands in the higher part of Ilkley, and like Ben 
Rhydding, commands fine views over the valley of the Wharfe. 
This mansion is in the Italian style, and contains every 
convenience and luxury. 

Boarders not in need of hydropathic treatment are received 
at both these establishments. 

There are also houses where patients of a poorer class can 
enjoy the benefit of the water cure. 

Ilkley was a Roman station, and had, before the occupation 
by the Romans*, been one of the cities of the Brigantes ; it is 
called by Ptolemy, "Olicana." Some foundations of the 
Roman fortress may yet be traced, and Roman remains are 
not infrequently found in the vicinity. 

The Church has been recently restored and partially re-built. 
It is in the early Decorated style. The most interesting relic 
of antiquity is a cross-legged effigy in the south aisle, usually 
considered to ba that of Sir Adam de Middleton. 

In the church-yard are three very ancient sculptured crosses, 
concerning which much has been conjectured, but little 
determined. They are delineated in lithograph in Professor 
Phillip's well-known book on Yorkshire. 

II. BOLTON AND BARDEN. 

Inns : Devonshire Arms and Red Lion. 

The drive or walk of six miles from Ilkley to Bolton is 
extremely beautiful. The road follows the course of the 



23 

Wharfe on its right or western bank, and passes through the 
village of Addingham, where is the junction with the carriage- 
road from Skipton to Ilkley. 

The visitor to Bolton who comes from Skipton in Airtdale 
will not, however, travel as far south as Addingham. He 
must pass through Draughton ; the distance is only six miles. 

Bolton, with its Abbey and its woods, is justly acknowledged 
to be one of the most beautiful spots in our beautiful island. 
Whitaker, who was an enthusiastic admirer of this portion of 
Wharfedale especially, has chararterized the landscape in 
words which have often been quoted, but which the reader 
will be glad to have before him in this place :- - 

" Bolton Priory stands upon a beautiful curvature of the 
Wharfe, on a level sufficiently elevated to protect it from 
inundation, and low enough for every purpose of picturesque 
effect. In the latter respect it has no equal among the 
northern houses, perhaps not in the kingdom. Fountains, as 
a building, is more entire, more spacious and magnificent, but 
the valley of the Skell is insignificant and without features. 
Furness, w r hich is more dilapidated, ranks still lower in point 
of situation. Kirkstall, as a mere ruin, is superior to Bolton, 
but though deficient neither in wood nor water, it wants the 
seclusion of the deep valley, and the termination of a bold, 
rocky background. Tintern, which perhaps most resembles 
it, has rock, wood, and water in perfection, but no foreground 
whatever. Opposite to the magnificent east window of the 
Priory Church, the river w r ashes a rock, nearly perpendicular, 
and of the richest purple, where several of the mineral beds 
instead of maintaining their usual inclination to the horizon, 
are twisted, by some inconceivable process, into undulating 
and spiral lines. To the south all is soil and delicious ; the 
eye reposes on a few rich pastures and a moderate reach of 
the river, sufficiently tranquil to form a mirror to the sun, and 
to the bounding fells beyond, neither too near nor too lofty to 
exclude, even in winter, any portion of his rays. But 
after all, the glories of Bolton are on the north. Whatever 
the most fastidious taste could require to constitute a landscape, 
is not only found here, but in its proper place. In front, and 
immediately under the eye, is a smooth expanse of park-like 
enclosure, spotted with native elm, ash, &c.. of the finest 
growth ; on the right, a skirting oak wood, with jutting points 
of grey rock ; on the left a rising copse. Still forward are 
seen the aged groves of Bolton Park, the growth of centuries ; 



2 4 

and farther yet, the barren and rocky distances of Simon's 
Seat and Harden Fell, contrasted to the warmth, fertility, and 
luxuriant foliage of the valley below." 

Bolton Priory is a foundation dating- from the twelfth 
century. A monastery for Augustinian Canons was founded 
at Embsay, in H2O, by William de Meschines and his wife, 
Cecilia de Romille. After a lapse of 33 years "the canons 
were removed to Bolton by William Fitz Duncan and his 
wife, another Cecilia de Romille, the only child and heiress of 
the founders of the house at Embsay." It was their son who 
was known as the "boy of Egremond," who was, according 
to tradition, drowned in the Strid, and whose death is said to 
have been the occasion of the erection of the Priory at Bolton. 

One of the chief points of interest at Bolton is the Strid, two 
miles higher up the river, where the Wharfe is contracted 
within ledges of rock, between which, especially when swollen 
by rain, the river rushes with a deep and solemn roar, like the 
voice of the angry spirit of the waters, heard far above and 
beneath, amidst the silence of the surrounding woods. The 
channel at this spot is little more than four feet across, and 
is often leaped by the adventurous. Indeed, the word "Strid" 
has usually been regarded as the same as "stride, 1 ' from the 
possibility of striding the river at this point. But the true 
derivation is probably from the Anglo-Saxon "Stryth," which 
means turmoil, tumult. 

This is the scene of the tragic incident which has been 
versified in the well-known poem of Wordsworth, "The Force 
of Prayer." We subjoin this poem, as not only giving a 
romantic interest to Bolton Strid, but as embodying the 
popular tradition as to the foundation of Bolton Priory. It 
should be added that there is evidence that "the boy of 
Egremond" lived to be a man; but the tradition may have 
an authentic origin in the fate of some other member of the 
family. 

"What is good for a bootless Lene ? " 

With these dark words begins my tale ; 
And their meaning is, whence can comfort spring 
When prayer is of no avail ? 

"What is good for a bootless bene ? " 

The Falconer to the Lady said ; 
And she made answer, "endless sorrow," 
For she knew that her son was dead, 



25 

She knew it by the Falconer's words, 
And from the look of the Falconer's eye; 

And from the lov: which was in her soul, 
For her youthful Romilly. 

-Young Romilly through Barden woods 

Is ranging high and low, 
And holds a greyhound in his leash, 
To let slip upon buck or doe. 

The pair have reached that fearful chasm, 

How tempting to bestride ! 
For lordly Wharfe is there pent in 

With rocks on either side. 

This striding place is called THE STRID, 

A name which it took of yore ; 
A thousand years hath it borne that name, 

And shall a thousand more. 

And hither is young Romilly come, 

And what may now forbid 
That he, perhaps for the hundredth time, 

Shall bound across the Strid ? 

He sprang in glee, for what cared he 

That the river was strong, and the rocks were steep ?- 
But the greyhound in the leash hung back, 

And checked him in his leap 

The boy is in the arms of Wharfe, 

And strangled by a merciless force ; 
For never more was young Romilly seen 

Till he rose a lifeless corse. 

Now there is stillness in the vale, 

And long, unspeaking sorrow : 
Wharfe j-hall be to pit /ing eyes, 

A name more sad than Yarrow. 

If for a lover the Lady wept, 

A solace she might borrow ; 
From death, and from the passion of death ; 

Old Wharfe might heal her sorrow 

She weeps not for the wedding-day, 

Which was to be to-morrow ; 
Her hope was a further-looking hope, 

And hers is a mother's sorrow. 

He was a tree that stood alone, 

And proudly did its branches wave, 
And the root of this delightful tree 

Was in her husband's grave. 
C 



26 

Long, long in darkness did she sit, 
And her first words were, "Let there be 

In Bolton, on the field of Wharfe, 
A stately Priory ! " 

The stately Priory was reared, 

^id Wharfe, as he moved along, 
To matins joined a mournful voice, 

Nor failed at even -song. 

And the Lady prayed in heaviness 

That looked not for relief! 
But slowly did her succour come, 

And a patience to her grief. 

Oh ! there is never sorrow of heart 

That shall lack a timely end, 
If but to God we turn, and ask 

Of Him to be our Friend ! 

The foundation of Bolton was liberally endowed, and the 
establishment, consisting of more than 200 persons, was well 
provided for. Those who are curious in such matters should 
read in Whitaker 's History of Craven the specimens printed 
there from the old account books. Although Landseer's 
well-known picture, "Bolton Abbey in the Olden Time," 
contains nothing specially characteristic of this Priory, it 
serves to remind us how earth, air, and water, were all laid 
under contribution for the supply of the wants of the saintly 
brethren, whilst they were still in the fleshly tabernacle, and 
abiding in the wilderness of earth. 

Bolton Hall, a house of the Duke of Devonshire, is modern, 
except the central part, which was the ancient gateway of the 
Abbey. 

Of the Priory, only the church remains. The nave, partly 
Early English and partly Decorated, has been restored and is 
used as a parish church. The lancet windows on the south 
have been filled with modern stained glass. Below the 
chantry chapel is the vault of the Claphams of Beamsley and 
the Mauleverers. 

" Pass, pass who will, yon chantry door ; 
And, through the chink in the fractured floor, 
Look down, and see a griesly sight ; 
A vault where the bodies are buried upright ! 
There, face by face, and hand by hand, 
The Claphams and Mauleverers stand; 
And, in his place, among son and sire, 
Is John de Clapham, that fierce Esquire, 



27 

A valiant man, and a name of dread 

In the ruthless wars of the White and Red ; 

Who dragged Earl Pembroke from Bamhury Church, 

And smote off his head on the stones of the porch! 

Oft does the White Doe loiter there, 

Prying into the darksome rent." 

The transepts and the choir are chiefly of the Decorated 
period, and some of the tracery remains and is very beautiful, 
althoug-h much is gone. At the east end is some arcading- in 
the transition Norman style, very elegant. 

A western tower in the Perpendicular style was commenced 
in 1520 by Prior Moon, but was never finished. It is thought 
probable that there was a central tower ; but no tower now 
remains, and the want of one is the chief defect of Bolton in 
the matter of picturesqueness, as compared with Kirkstall or 
Fountains. 

There are some traces of the cloister-court and of the 
chapter-house The present rectory is on the site of the 
monastery kitchens. 

The church-yard is on the north side of the Priory. It was 
hither, according- to the tradition and the poem, that the 
survivor of the Nortons, Emily, attended by her White Doe, 
was wont to repair. 

" But most to Bolton's sacred pile, 
On favouring nights she loved to go; 
There ranged through cloister, court, and aisle, 
Attended by the soft-paced Doe; 
Nor feared she in the still moonshine 
To look upon St. Mary's shrine; 
Nor on the lowly turf that showed 
Where Francis slept in his last abode. 
There oft she came, there oft she sate, 
Forlorn, but not disconsolate; 
And, when she from the abyss returned 

Of thought, she neither shrunk nor mourned ; 
W r as happy that she lived to greet 
Her mute companion as it lay 
In love and pity at her feet." 

And it was hither that, after Emily's death, the Doe is 
represented as having- frequented her mistress's grave. 

" Haunting the spots with lonely cheer, 
Which her dear mistress once held dear; 
Loves most what Emily loved most 
The enclosure of this church-yard ground; 



28 

Here wanders, like a gliding ghost, 
And every Sabbath here is found. 

* # # * 

But chiefly by that single grave, 
That one sequestered hillock green, 
The pensive visitant is seen. " 

Bolton Woods contain some of the most delightful scenery 
in all England. The visitor will do well to linger here ; it is 
not the place for a hurried visit, but rather for a week of rural 
leisure. It is worth while to reprint here Wordsworth's* 
judgment upon the landscapes of Bolton, penned when these 
scenes were less known than now : 

" I cannot conclude without recommending to the notice of 
all lovers of beautiful scenery Bolton Abbey and its neigh- 
bourhood. This enchanting spot belongs to the Duke of 
Devonshire ; and the superintendence of it has for some years 
been entrusted to the Rev. William Carr, who has most 
skilfully opened out its features ; and in whatever he has 
added has done justice to the place, by working with the 
invisible hand of art in the very spirit of nature." 

Seats have been placed in some of the most eligible 
positions in these woods, each of which commands a distinct 
view with its own special charms. This accommodation adds 
much to the comfort and enjoyment of the visitor. 

The two following walks may be recommended to the 
visitor to Bolton Abbey who is not pressed for time. 

(i.) Start from the Holme Terrace and pass the Hall and 
the Abbey. On passing the west front of the Abbey, the road 
is regained. A walk of a mile will lead to a wooden bridge 
over the Wharfe ; cross this, and a footpath to the left will 
take you to Lud's Cave and Lud-stream Seat. Crossing the 
bridge over Possforth Beck you will arrive at the Strid ; from 
thence the visitor may proceed along the river to a point 
opposite the mouth of Barden Beck, where he will obtain an 
excellent view of Barden Tower. Hence, he may return by 
the Oak, Clifford, the Strid, and Boyleford Seats, up Possforth 
Beck to Lawn Seat, Buckrake Seat, and the Devonshire Seat, 
from which the cascade is distant only a few hundred yards. 
The Valley of Desolation extends for half-a-mile beyond the 
cascade. The havoc caused by a terrific thunderstorm long 
since has left traces which still justify the name of this valley. 
From the smaller cascade at the top of the Valley of 

* Note to "The White Doe of Rylstone. 



29 

Desolation, the visitor may return by the east side, and across 
the park to Park-gate Seat, whence a very fine view may be 
enjoyed. The wooden bridge must then be re-crossed, and a 
footpath across the fields leads to the '-Devonshire Arms." 

(2.) The second ramble commences by crossing the bridge 
to the eastern side of the Wharfe. Take the first gate on the 
left, which leads to a seat under a large elm at the river's 
bank. The next seat, a circular one round an oak, is Skip- 
house-wheel Seat, and may be reached either by the path to 
the right following the beaten track through the field, or by 
that to the left, winding round the base of the rock, and 
ascending by a flight of rude steps. After passing the 
Waterfall Bridge, the next seats are Cat-crag, Prior's, and 
Prior's-stone Seats ; from hence there is a bridge over Noscow 
Gill. But follow the footpath to the left to Burlington Seat, 
and the way is plain to Simon's Seat, St. Bridget's Seat, and 
so over the wooden bridge to Pembroke Seat. From this 
point the best view of Barden Tower is obtained ; a rocky 
island divides the Wharfe into two channels, it is fringed with 
wood or meadow on both sides, and the forest trees are seen 
towering up to the very base of the ruin. Passing in succes- 
sion Lady Harriet's, the Cavendish, and Lady Georgiana's 
Seats, you reach the finest point of view in the whole domain, 
Hartington Seat. After enjoying the lovely landscape 
which stretches before you here, you return to the Abbey.* 

The imaginative visitor, lingering among Bolton ruins and 
woods a summer day, will take pleasure in picturing the 
aspect of the famous Priory in the olden time. The lines 
of Wordsworth will help him to portray the scenes of 
bygone days : 

"From Bolton's old monastic tower 
The bells ring loud with gladsome power ; 
The sun shines bright ; the fields are gay 
With people in their best array 
Of stole and doublet, hood and scarf, 
Along the banks of crystal Wharfe, 
Through the vale retired and lowly, 
Trooping to that summons holy. 
And, up among the moorlands, see 
What sprinklings of blithe company ! 
Of lasses and of shepherd grooms, 
That down the steep hills force their way, 
Like cattle through the budded brooms ; 
Path, or no path, what care they ? 
The description of the above walks is substantially that of Mr. Howson. 



And thus in joyous mood they hie 
To Bolton's mouldering Priory. " 

BARDEN TOWER is chiefly interesting" as having 1 been the 
residence of Henry Clifford, the " shepherd lord." His family 
being 1 of the Lancastrian party, this Clifford was "in hiding" 
among the fells of Cumberland for upwards of twenty years, 
during the ascendancy of the Yorkists. After the accession of 
Henry VII., and the r conciliation of the two factions, the 
Cliffords, like other proscribed families, were restored to their 
inheritance. The "shepherd lord" made Barden his home, 
and about the year 1485 converted Barden Lodge into a 
residence. About a century afterwards it became a ruin ; but 
was restored by Lady Anne Clifford in the years 1658 and 
1659, -as may be read in a curious and characteristic in- 
scription still remaining- over the principal doorway. Though 
entire, according to Dr. Whitaker, in 1 774, it has for some 
time been again a ruin. The chapel, however, was restored 
by the Duke of Devonshire, in 1860; and part of the adjoining 
tower is used as a farm-house. The old key of the Tower 
and a rusty halberd are the only antiquities belonging to the 
place which are still preserved. The ruins are picturesque, 
but by no means imposing. 

The visitor may well muse upon the vicissitudes of great 
families, as he lingers by 

"The shy recess 
Of Garden's humble quietness. " 

And his reminiscences of the "good Lord Clifford" will 
be pleasant: 

"As Clifford erst in Barden's neighbouring lower, 
The Shepherd Lord unscathed by civil jars, 
Undazzled by the blaze of sudden power, 
Trained his meek spirit 'mid the silent stars." 

This Lord Clifford is said to have been a student of 
astronomy and alchemy, in which studies he was aided by the 
monks of Bolton. Notwithstanding his peaceful tastes and 
habits, he fought at Flodden Field in 1513, and led the 
warriors from the Craven country, who formed part of the 
English host. 

" From Pennegent to Pendle Hill, 
From Linton to Long Addingham, 
And all that Craven coasts could till, 
They with the lusty Clifford came ; 



All Staincliffe hundred went with him, 
With striplings strong from Wharfedale, 
And all that Halton Hills did climb, 
With Loiigstroth eke and Litton Dale, 
Whose milk-fed fellows, fleshly bred, 
Well browned, with sounding bows upbend, 
All such as Horton Fells had fed, 
On Clifford's banner did attend. " 

The "shepherd lord" died at the age of seventy, ten years 
after the battle of Flodden, in 1523. 

Distances from Sol ton : To Ilkley, 5 miles ; to Grassington, 
IO miles; to Kilnsey, 14 miles, to Kettlewell, 17 miles; to 
Skipton, 6 miles; to Harrogate, 16 miles. 



III. UPPER WHARFEDALE. 

From Harden Bridge a detour should be made to Gill Beck, 
which, tracking a ravine rich in ferns and mosses, comes 
down in a pretty waterfall. The views from the Home Seat, 
and from Gill Beck Bridge, are very pleasing. 

At Skyreholrr.e, near Appletreewick, the tourist should turn 
aside to visit the gorge known as Troller's Gill. The way is 
past Skyreholme Mill dam. Dr. Whitaker thus describes this 
romantic spot: ''It is a winding but nearly perpendicular 
fissure in the limestone rock, about half-a-mile in length, a 
very few yards in width, and, upon an average, about 60 feet 
high. The bottom forms the channel of a torrent, often dry; 
but, when swollen by rains, devolving huge masses of lime- 
stone, which interrupt and exasperate its course. On the 
whole, Troller's Gill wants the waterfall, the depth and 
majesty of the modern Gordale (the Gordale of the modern 
Malham), but its general resemblance to the other, its sudden 
contraction and perpendicular depression, give it an exclusive 
claim to be the ancient Gordale of Appletreewick." 

Near the Moor Cock Inn, Drygill, are the Stump Cross 
Caverns,- -very extensive and containing stalactites of great 
beauty. 

Appletreewick (Inns : Craven Arms and New Inn) was the 
birth-place of Sir William Craven, Lord Mayor of London, 
whose son became the first Earl of Craven. High Hall, a 
mansion in this parish, was the residence of Sir William. 

From Barden or from Appletreewick may be made the 
ascent of Simon's Seat, of which the " highest point is a jagged 



32 

head of grit rocks, near 1,600 feet above the sea, and 
probably 1,000 above the Wharfe at Appletreewick, a mile 
and a half off. The mighty rocks which are piled on its 
summit appear like some monster fortress built by giants." 
The viaw from this height is very beautiful, and extends 
towards the east as far as York and Ripon Minsters. Simon's 
Seat is also called Harden Fell East. Harden Fell West is 
1,663 f ee t high; and thesj two mountains are geologically 
interesting as "the highest points of the mill-stone grit, in the 
broad ranges of that rock, east of Ryeloaf, and south of 
Greenhow Hill." 

The river Wharfe, which has hitherto, in its downward 
course from Cam Fell, flowed through the mountain limestone, 
here, near Hurnsall, enters the gritstone country; the change 
in the landscape is very noticeable. 

Burnsall (Inn : Bridge Inn) is chiefly noticeable from the 
fact that it has two rectors, two rectory houses, two tithe 
barns, and even two pulpits. Both the medieties have, 
however, of late, been held by one and the same rector. 

The church was restored in 1858-9; the ancient edifice was 
repaired in 1612, as is recorded in the following inscription, 
still extant: 

" This church was Repaired and Butified at thonlie costes 
and chardges of Sir William Craven, knight and alderm of 
the citie of London. And late Lord Mayre of the same, 
Anno dm. 1612." 

Burnsall has a grammar-school. 

Between Burnsall and Linton are Thorpe on the right bank 
and Hebden upon the left bank of the river. Those who will 
ramble by the river side, cross now and again the stepping- 
stones locally called "hippings," explore the glens through 
which the tributary becks come down to the Wharfe, and 
climb the neighbouring hills, will find themselves richly 
rewarded by most charming scenery. 

At Linton are the "Falls of the Wharfe," which, after much 
rain, when the river is flooded, are very fine. The falls may 
be viewed from the wooden bridge, supported on iron pillars, 
which here crosses the river. On the way to the bridge you 
pass the tall cotton mill and a corn mill, which is said to be 
one of the few " soke-mills " left in the country. 

The church, which was restored in 1861-2, is a little lower 
down the valley. Until recently, this living was in two 
medieties, but by an order in council these moieties have been 
united. 



33 

The tourist who is acquainted with the neighbourhood of 
Bolton Abbey, and wishes to visit only the Upper Wharfedale, 
may approach the valley from Skipton, by way of Rylstone. 
The road, leaving Flasby Fell and Rylstone Fell on the right, 
passes through the village of Rylstone. Of Rylstone Hall 
nothing now remains, but some ruins of Norton Tower may 
still be seen upon the fell. This district has been rendered 
familiar to the reader of Wordsworth by the references to it 
in that charming poem, "The White Doe of Rylstone." 
Canto fifth opens with this stanza : 

" High on a point of rugged ground, 
Among the wastes of Rylstone Fell, 
Above the loftiest ridge or mound, 
Where foresters or shepherds dwell, 
An edifice of warlike frame 
Stands single Norton Tower its name 
It fronts all quarters, and looks around, 
O'er path and road, o'er plain and dell, 
Dark moor, and gleam of pool and stream, 
Upon a prospect without bound." 

The road next passes the village of Cracoe, and then 
approaches the valley of the Wharfe, either by Linton or 
Threshfield. The bridge a handsome and massive bridge of 
five arches is then crossed, and Grassington, on the other 
side of the river, is reached, after a journey from Skipton of 
between 10 and II miles. 

Grassington (Inns: Jobbers' Arms, Devonshire Arms, Forest- 
ers' Arms, and Black Horse) is a little town which has its fairs 
and its annual "feast." Its importance is chiefly owing, 
however, to the extensive and profitable lead mines which are 
distant two or three miles from the town, and which those 
who are interested in such matters will do well to visit from 
here. There is a fine old bridge at Grassington, which, it is 
said, is the only bridge over the Wharfe which has not at 
some period been washed away by the impetuous stream. 

Threshfield is on the right bank of the river, and has a 
grammar school, where the learned Dr. Whitaker, the 
historian of Craven, received his education as a boy. 

Between Threshfield and Gordale, in a remote spot, are 
the remains of what is called " The Druids' Circle." 

The walk of about three miles from Grassington to Coniston 
is very pleasant. On the way the tourist should pause to view 
the rapids known as Ghaistrill Force and Ghaistrill Strid, 



34 

should linger amid the floral wealth of Grass Wood, or the 
stunted but beautiful timber of Bastow Wood, and, better still, 
should climb to the summit of Dew Bottom Scar, whence is a 
magnificent prospect, or should make a detour to Trumla Ha' 
and Dib Scar Glen. 

At Coniston, half-way between Grassington and Kettlewell, 
i a church, which has been recently restored, and which 
contains some Norman portions, that have been preserved 
with due care. 

The visitor will, however, cross the river by the substantial 
bridge, for the great attraction of this part of the dale is on 
the western side ; we refer to Kilnsey Scar. 

Kilnsey (Inns: Tennant's Arms and Anglers' Inn) is a 
prettily situated village, where the pedestrian may halt for 
the night. 

Kilnsey Scar or Crag is a cliff of limestone, about 165 feet 
in height, and extending nearly half-a-mile. The summit 
overhangs to a distance of something like 40 feet. It is a 
remarkably fine scar viewed from below ; though less im- 
posing than Malham Cove, and without the interest given by 
the river which issues from the foot of that glorious precipice, 
Kilnsey, with its beetling top, its ledges and its fissures, and 
its bold surface, here grey with lichen, and there green with 
ivy and with bushes, has a grandeur and a beauty of its own. 

The Scar may be climbed at the side. Startling on your 
way rabbits from the bushes and goats upon the crags, you 
may, without much labour, reach the summit, and you will be 
rewarded by charming views both up and down the valley. 

The first impression that such scars as Kilnsey give you is, 
that they are sea-cliffs ; and this is the conclusion of modern 
science. '-The great inland cliffs," says Professor Phillips, 
"which are among the most striking phenomena of Yorkshire, 
only differ from sea-cliffs because the water no longer beats 
against them. The Hambledon Hills, the Wolds, no less than 
Giggleswick Scar, were cliffs against a wide sea. Kilnsey 
Crag was a promontory overlooking the primaeval sea-loch, 
which is now the green valley of the Wharfe ; and the mural 
precipices which gird the bases of Whernside, Ingleborough, 
and Pennegent, formed the bold margin to similar branches of 
the sea which extended up Chapel-le-dale and Ribblesdale." 

It was to Kilnsey that the vast flocks of sheep belonging to 
the monks of Fountains Abbey, which were pastured upon the 
fells in this district, were annually driven to be shorn. "The 



35 

bleating" of the sheep," says Whitaker, "the echoes of the 
surrounding- rocks, the picturesque habits of the monks, the 
uncouth dress, long beards and cheerful countenances of the 
shepherds, the bustle of the morning and the good cheer of 
the evening, would, altogether, form a picture and a concert 
to which nothing in modern appearances or living manners 
can be supposed to form any parallel." 

From Kilnsey the pedestrian may visit Dowker-bottom, or 
Dowker-bottom Cave, at a distance of about two miles. It 
will be well to take a guide, as the place is not easy to find. 
The stalactites in this cave have been to a large extent 
destroyed; but at any time the designation, "the miniature 
Antiparos," must have been an exaggeration. There are, 
however, two fine chambers. In this cave have been found 
human skeletons and various relics pottery and Roman coins 
indicating that, like the Victoria Cave, near Settle, this was 
a retreat for British refugees. The bones of wild animals 
found there prove that it was at a very remote time the home 
of the deer, the wolf, and other beasts. The cave has been 
examined by Mr. Jackson, Mr. Denny, Mr. Farrer, and others 
given to the explorations now known as "cave hunting.' 1 

A little above Kilnsey is the confluence of the Skirfare with 
the Wharfe, and the junction of Littondale with Kettlewelldale 
as our valley is called hereabout. 

Littondale, formerly called Amerdale, 

"The deep fork of Amerdale. " WORDSWORTH. 

is a charming secluded valley, which the admirer of the 
remoter and more primitive dales of Yorkshire will do well to 
explore to its head. 

The hamlet of Hawkswick is passed on the way up the 
valley towards Arncliffe. 

Arncliffe is the most important village in this valley ; and 
indeed the parish of Arncliffe includes all Littondale. The 
church has been restored, and is well cared for. 

Beyond, and nearer the head of the valley, is Litton ; and 
still higher, is Halton Gill. From Litton a road leads by 
Nether Hesleden, Over Hesleden, Pennegent House and 
Stainforth to Settle. From Halton Gill is a mountain path to 
Raisgill, in Langstrothdale. From Arncliffe is a mountain 
path over Horse's Head to Hubberholme, a distance of about 
five miles. 



36 

Kettlewell (Inn : Marshall's) is a small market town 
inhabited largely by lead miners, and altogether a primiiive 
little settlement. It is a place of some local importance, has 
three fairs a year, and gives its name to this portion of the 
valley of the Wharfe. The river, in its descent from the 
source to this point falls a depth of about 600 feet ! There 
was formerly a small Norman church in this parish ; the 
present is a modern one, containing, however, a relic of the 
old edifice in a curious cylindrical Norman font. 

Near Kettlewell are Dove Cove and Douk Cave the latter 
is worth a visit. 

From Kettlewell may be made the ascent of two great 
mountains: one, "the weather-beaten Whernside, at whose 
foot it stands ; the best time for which is in August, when the 
heather is in bloom and the grouse are on the wing;" the 
other, Buckden Pike. There is a road through the pass 
between these heights, which leads through Coverdale to 
Middleham in Wensleydale. 

Still ascending the valley, passing Starbottom, we come to 
Buckden (Inns : Cock, and Buck) which is the terminus of the 
Wharfedale omnibus which daily conveys the " royal mail " 
from Skipton, and daily performs the return journey down the 
dale. From this point a road leads northwards by Bishopdale 
into Wensleydale, which is touched t Aysgarth, a large 
village four miles below Bainbridge. 

Buckden is in a sheltered nook at the angle here formed by 
the course of the Wharfe ; there are some good houses in the 
neighbourhood. The beauty of the country has been improved 
by recent plantations of fir trees, for which thanks must be 
rendered to the Hon. Mrs. Ramsden. 

Above Buckden the valley of the Wharfe is termed Lang- 
strothdale, usually pronounced Langsterdale. Ascending the 
dale, the traveller first reaches Hubberholme, where is a 
church with very ancient portions, and a rood-loft dated 1558, 
the year of Queen Mary's death. The church was restored 
in 1863. 

Langstrothdale is believed to be the <% toun," that "hight 
Strother, ffer in the north," whence came the Cambridge 
scholars of whom we read in Chaucer's Reve's Tale. The 
story is considered to abound in samples of the dialect peculiar 
to this part of Craven. 

Above Hubberholme is Raisgill, and above this, Yocken- 
thwaite; and then successively Deepdale and Beckermonds, 



37 

at the confluence of Outershaw Beck and Greenfield Beck. 
The remotest hamlet is Outershaw, near which, on the slope of 
Cam Fell, is the source of the river Wharfe. 

On these moors abound the scarlet cloud-berries, or nout- 
berries, berries larger than raspberries, but of a sickly taste, 
which are used by the people for tarts and pudding's. 

After tracing 1 the Wharfe to its source, we can sympathize 
with the enthusiasm of the native of this romantic country, 
(Mr. B. J. Harker) who thus apostrophizes his beloved 
stream :- - 

Oh ! deer owd Wharfe, sa clear and breet, 

That I cud hear thee merrie sang, 
An' ligg me on thee banks sa sweet, 

Or wander by thee aw day lang. 

I'd watch thee bonnie speckled fish 

Sieze on the May-flee at a spring ; 
An' view thee watters aw sa lish, 

Bound frae the rocks, an' perlies fling. 

An' now it maks my heart run hee 

To think o' thease hours, tho' past ; 
An' till ha dee, I'll thankful be, 

Me lot be Wharfe wer iwer cast. 







CHAPTER IV. 



MALHAM AND GORDALE. 

Inns: The Buck, and Lister's Arms. 

( NE of the most interesting- and delightful excursions to be 
made in Craven, and indeed in England, is that to 
Malham Cove and Gordale Scar. These wonderful 
productions of Nature in her sublimest moods may best 
be visited from the railway station at Bell Busk, although it is 
quite feasible to drive either from Skipton or from Settle. 
The landlord of the Buck, if a letter be sent to him beforehand, 
will send a trap to the Bell Busk station to meet the train. But 
we will presume the visitor to be a pedestrian, and for his 
bertefit, we will describe our own visit. 

Leaving the station, we entered a gate and passed through 
a farm-yard. Assured that the " road was good enough to 
find," we pursued a footpath which led us sometimes across 
the fields and sometimes through shady lanes, until we struck 
the carriage road, near Airton. In the neighbourhood of 
Airton are Calton Hall and Scotsthrop. From this hamlet, 
which, as its name indicates, is on the banks of the new-born 
river Aire, it is possible to proceed either by high road or 
footpath. For ourselves, we never hesitate when this alterna- 
tive is offered. We turned into the footpath near the cotton 
mill, and pursued the course of the mill-stream, and then of 
the river. We found it a pretty walk, commanding fine views 
of the hills we were approaching, and the great "Craven 
fault," as it is termed by geologists, which is so conspicuous 
a feature of this district. A pleasant path it is by the 
gleaming, prattling stream ; now a pair of kingfishers darted 
across the brook into the bushes, anon an angler threw his 
fly to tempt the wary trout ; the cattle gathered beneath the 



39 

shade of the ash trees in the pastures ; the lark carolled in the 
heavens ; so the way seemed short to the stone bridge over 
the river at Hanlith, where, turning- from the mansion and 
park on the slope above, we admired the view of Kirkby 
Malham, and its church tower and houses among the trees. 

Instead of continuing- along the path by the river we bent 
our steps towards Kirkby. Amidst the grey old houses, 
dating from the early part of the iyth century, of which 
there are but a few in the village is the large church, the 
'kays" of which were duly procured for us. Its architecture 
is mainly Perpendicular. Upon entering the nave the first 
things that struck us were the niches in the west sides of the 
columns, evidently prepared for small statues, and two old 
corbels of a grotesque character, above two of the arches. 
The pews in this church are of the true old-fashioned family 
type ; we never saw so many square oak pews, with initials 
and dates carved upon their backs. One is dated 1631, and 
another 1649, and not a few of the owners have described 
themselves and their quality by their initials followed by the 
important letters, ESQ There is a handsome old font of 
round shape, with dog-tooth moulding, probably Norman, 
and a massive old oak chest. We were interested and 
amused by two frescoes which have been brought to light 
upon the west wall ; one of them representing a skeleton, and 
the other a winged figure, marvellous specimens of art 

The chief interest of the church lies in its connection with 
the Lambert family, whose most distiugnished member was 
the Major-General Lambert of the Parliamentary army. 
There is a mural monument to the son, and a brass plate to 
the memory of the grandson of the famous republican officer. 
We climbed to the belfry, and upon looking at the three bells 
descried an inscription upon the largest, which runs thus: 
"JosiAS LAMBERT, 1602. Gon SAVE OUR CHURCH, OUR QUEEN, 
AND RKALM." From this it appears that the Lamberts were 
loyal enough to the throne in the days of Queen Bess, and 
were driven into rebellion if it is to be so called by the 
arbitrary acts and perfidious character of Charles I. From 
the top of the steeple we enjoyed a pretty and varied view of 
Malham-dale and its encompassing hills. On leaving the 
church we noticed what seemed to be the fragment of an old 
coffin-lid, of stone, with handsome cross decorations, let into 
the wall of the porch, and in the church-yard the fragments 
of a dilapidated sun-dial. 



40 

Perhaps the greatest curiosity of Kirkby Malham is the 
signature of Oliver Cromwell in the parish registers. The 
following- is an extract, with a fac-simile of the Protector's 
autograph annexed: 

"The intended marriage between Martine Knowles, of 
' Middle House, in the p'ishe of Kirkbiemalhamdale, and 
' Dorothy Hartley, of West Marton, in the p'ishe of Marton, 
'was published three severall market dayes in the open 
' markett place att Settle ; that is to say upon the 4th of 
' December the first tyme, and on the nth of December the 
'second tyme, and on the i8th of December the third tyme. 
' 1655. And the said Martine Knowles and Dorothy Hartley 
'was married the 1 7th of January, 1656, in the p'sence of 
'these witnesses, Henry Mitchell younger, of Marton, and 
'Anthony Hartley, of West Marton, and others before mee,' 1 



l 



(Viz. : Registered. ) 

Our preference for a footpath inclined us, when a little way 
out of the village, to turn by a stile on the right into the fields. 
The path we took soon joined that which we had left at 
Hanlith, and led us past a cotton mill, through the valley by 
the brook, where limestone scars rise upon the right, until we 
came to Malham. 

Entering the village by the Wesleyan Chapel, and passing 
the Buck Inn, we kept to the left where the road forks, and 
following a lane bordered with sycamores and ashes, soon 
found ourselves in the open country. Many years before we 
had made a pilgrimage to Malham Cove, and we were 
wondering whether our recollections of its grandeur were 
coloured to any extent by youthful imagination. As we 
turned into the pastures, at the second gate on the right, we 
were not charmed by the view of the ugly stone walls dividing 
the hill-side before us into unshapely fields. However, we 
passed through tho coppice of hazel, ash, and thorn, which 
borders the brook in the valley, and presently stood in front 
of and below the majestic cliffs. No! old impressions were 
not unjust : for sublimity and beauty combined, few scenes in 
England can rival Malham Cove. Before us rose an amphi- 
theatre of white limestone, the summit of which is 470 yards 
in breadth, stained with grey and brown and black, and 



41 

towering- to a height of 286 feet ! Running partially across 
its front are vast jutting- ledg-es of rock, clothed \vith grass and 
shrubs and trees, and 'projecting so far as to cast a shadow 
upon the rock beneath. 

At the base of this prodigious cliff the river Aire issues from 
the subterraneous darkness into the light of day. Where the 
rock is stained a vivid green with living mosses, and dyed 
yellow and orange with the brilliant lichen, the pellucid water 
flows into the sedgy pools and over the rocky bed. The 
shimmer of sun-light was on the running, rippling water 
current, and was reflected upon the rock which overhangs the 
source, in a dancing, fairy-like shiver. Sitting under the 
shadow of an ash tree, in that quiet August noon, as the 
breeze stirred the boughs above us. we gazed upwards to the 
lofty scar, watched the swallows dar. from their holes in the 
rocks and soar and whirl in swift and graceful flight. How 
grandly the white masses of cloud come moving over the 
summit of the craggy cliff ! How sweetly, as the brook 
murmurs on its way, and the soft air stirs in the boughs, is 
the soul possessed with "the melody of woods, and winds, 
and waters ! 

Turn from the majesty above to the loveliness around ; 
admire the modest cranes-bill at your feet ; let your eye take 
in the scene in all its richness and its beauty the plumy, 
nodding grasses, the glancing stream, ihe moss-stained rocks, 
the rude and lichened walls, the stately fern frond, the 
fluttering butterfly, the water-hen startled in her haunt, 
chuckling as she flies down t!v rivulet, and vanishes into 
the hazel copse ! * 

It is upon record that on rare occasions the waters of 
Mai ham Tarn have overflowed this prodigious precipice. As 
the height of the cliff is about double that of the famous Fall 
of Niagara, it may be imagined how glorious a scene such a 
catastrophe must present. Thomas Hurtley, of Malham, 
writing in 1786, says: "From the apex of this Cove, after 
what is in this part called " a rugg." or a succession of rainy 
and tempestuous weather, when the water-sink at the southern 
extremity of the Tarn is unable to receive the overflux of the 
lake, there falls a large and heavy torrent, making a more 
grand and magnificent cascade than imagination can form an 
idea of." 

After luncheon at the inn, we set off for Gordale Scar. 
Following the road leading eastward from the fork in the 



42 

hamlet, in about a mile we reached a farm-yard on the left, 
through which we passed, and guided by the course of the 
brook, soon reached the famous gorge. The rocks soon close 
in on either hand, terraced with grassy slopes between the 
ledges, old yews and other tr es springing from their sides. 
Where the chasm commences, the rocks, which are 300 feet 
in height, become precipitous and soon overhang the narrow 
entrance below. Those on the right over-arch in a way which 
is imposing and terrific they are said to project nearly 60 
feet. Scrambling over rough stones embedded in the soil, we 
arrived at the foot of the till. Standing under the right hand 
crag, which, with its beetling mass, threatens to overwhelm 
the whole gorge, we looked up towards the fall. The stream 
from the moors above comes hurtling down this frightful cleft, 
pours its water through an immense natural arch of rock, 
8 feet high by 15 feet long, through which you catch a 
glimpse of the sun-light on the rocky piles towering behind 
and above, and then plunges adown the chasm in a succession 
of most beautiful cascades. 

The young and active may easily ascend the Scar by 
crossing the stream to the other bank, and climbing up the 
face of the rock by the aid of foot-holes which have been worn 
in the nearly perpendicular face of the limestone rock. The 
views on the ascent and from the summit will well repay the 
toil. Altogether, Gordale Scar offers a scene of surprising 
wildness, and we cannot wonder that, to those especially 
whose travels have been confined to our own country, it serves 
as the embodiment of all their imaginations and all their 
dreams of grandeur and savage wildness in scenery. 

The present course of the torrent dates, it is said, only from 
1730, when a violent flood of water found the vent through 
which the mountain stream has since discharged its waters 
into the vale below. 

Gordale should be seem, so we were told by a farmer resident 
in the valley, on a moonlight night during a severe frost. 
The enormous icicles then adorning the chasm present a 
spectacle of singular and romantic beauty. Probably few of 
our readers will have the opportunity of testing^ for themselves 
the glowing descriptions which have been giv. n of Gordale 
on a frosty, moon lit evening. 

Little Gordale should not be over-looked, simple as are its 
pretensions compared with those of its ambitious neighbour. 
On our way back we took a short path to the left which leads 



43 

to this picturesque and peaceful spot. Here the water falls in 
larger and smaller streams adown a mossy rock. The 
afternoon sunlight poured through the surrounding- ash trees, 
and glanced on the descending water, the mossy rock, and 
the ivied crag. The water lay beneath in a pretty and 
transparent pool. Passing- by the stepping-stones over the 
current at the head of a second fall, we paused to watch its 
flow, as it gently stole into a wooded glen and disappeared 
among- the overhang-ing- ashes. 

On the other side of the stepping-stones 1 appears the mouth 
of a small cavern, known as Janet's Cave, which, tradition 
says, was formerly the abode of fairies. The spot does credit 
to their choice. 

About two miles from Malham, on the high land above the 
Cov;- and Gordale, is Malham Tarn, the larg-est piece of 
water in Yorkshire, being- about a mile across, and three 
miles in circumference. It is situated in a secluded and 
solitary region, and is 570 feet higher than the outlet of the 
Aire already described. Malham Water abounds in trout 
and perch. On its banks, and surrounded by plantations, is 
the seat of Colonel Morrison. 

If the visitor wishes to see the Tarn and to enjoy the 
extensive views from the elevated ridge above both Malham 
Cove and Gordale Scar, he may do so by climbing the slope 
on the left of the Cove, making his way to Malham Water, 
and descending by Gordale ; this he will find a walk of about 
three miles. In a direct liru behind the Cove, will be 
noticed a deep and narrow pass, closed by a lofty cliff, called 
Coom Scar: in a flood the Tarn water not infrequently rushes 
over here, and forms a second Gordale, but it is commonly 
prevented from reaching the Cave by sinking, with singular 
noise and rapidity, through the shattered and fissured stratum 
at the foot of the pass. 

Westall. Turner, and many other landscape painters, have 
striven to depict on canvas these glorious scenes. And poets 
have been inspired to sing by the high converse with Nature 
they have enjoyed among these limestone scars and caves. 

Even although Wordsworth's sonnets on these grand works 
of the great Artificer are said to have been inspired by 
pictures, and not by the realities, we think the reader will be 
pU-rised to have them before his eyes when he is visiting the 
spots to which they refer. 



44 

MALHAM COVE. 

' Was the aim frustrated by force or guile, 
When giants scooped from out the rocky ground, 
Tier under tier, this semicirque profound ? 
(Giants ! the same who built on Erin's isle 
That Causeway, with incomparable toil !) 
O ! had this vast theatric structure wound 
With finished sweep into a perfect round ; 
No mightier work had gained the plausive smile 
Of all beholding Phoebus ! But, alas, 
Vain earth ! false world ! foundations must be laid 
In Heaven ; for 'mid the wreck of is and was, 
Things incomplete, and purposes betrayed, 
Make sadder transits o'er thought's optic glass 
Than noblest objects utterly decayed. " 



GORDALE SCAR. 

" At early dawn, or rather when the air 
Glimmers with fading light, and shadowy Eve 
Is busiest to confer and to bereave ; 
Then, pensive Votary ! let thy feet repair 
To Gordale chasm, terrific as the lair 
Where the young lions couch ; for so, by leave 
Of the propitious hour, thou may'st perceive 
The local Deity, with oozy hair, 
And mineral crown, beside his jagged urn 
Recumbent ; Him thou may'st behold, who hides 
His lineaments by day, yet there presides, 
Teaching the docile waters how to turn, 
Or, (if need be) impediment to spurn, 
And force their passage to the salt-sea tides !" 

The reader will be interested in reading the language in 
which the poet Gray, who visited Gordale in 1769, recorded 
the impression the scene produced upon him : 

"As I advanced," he says, "the crags seemed to close in, 
" but discovered an entrance to the left between them ; I 
" followed my guide a few paces, and the hills opened again 
"into no large space; and then all further way is barred by a 
" stream, that at the height of about 50 feet, gushes from a 
"hole in the rock, and spreading its large sheets over its 
"broken front, dashes from step to step, and then rattles away 
" in a torrent down the valley ; the rock on the left rises 
"perpendicular, with stubbed yew trees and shrubs starting 
" from its sides, to the height of at least 300 feet. But these 
"are not the thing; it is the rock on the right, under which 
"we stand to see the fall, that forms the principal horror of 



45 



f 



"the place. From its very base it begins to slope forwar' 
"over you in one black and solid mass, without any crevice 
"in its surface, and overshadows half of the area below 
"in its dreadful canopy. When I stood, I believe, four 
"yards from its foot, the drops which perpetually distil from 
"its brow, fell upon my head, and in one part of its top, 
"more exposed to the weather, there are loose stones that 
" hang" in the air, and threaten visibly some idle spectator 
"with instant destruction; it is safer to shelter yourself close 
"to its bottom and trust to the mercy of that enormous mass, 
" which nothing- but an earthquake can stir. The gloomy 
"uncomfortable day well suited the savage aspect of the 
" place, and made it still more formidable. I staid there, not 
" without shuddering, a quarter of an hour, and thought 
" my trouble richly repaid, for the impression will last with 
"life." 

There are several ways of walking from Malham to Settle ; 
but we warn the pedestrian that no road will be found short, 
or perfectly easy to find. To describe our own route : 
turning westward at the bottom of the hamlet, we followed 
an old green lane, and then a footpath, at first indistinct, but 
afterwards clearly marked enough, until near some fir planta- 
tions on high ground we reached the mountain road leading 
from Kirkby Malham. From this point we had not the 
slightest difficulty in finding the way. The road crosses the 
shoulder of High Side, and is comparatively little used on 
account of its steepness at either end ; for we met not a 
solitary wayfarer, startling only the grouse or the lapwing 
on the moor. There are fine views all the way, first down 
Airedale, then across the plain to Pendle Hill. In the middle 
of the moor the road divides ; one track leads to Kirkby, 
another to Airton, the third i.e., our road- -to Settle. This 
road leads by Scaleber and under Attermire, and descends 
near Castleberg into Settle. But we found it a good three 
hours' walk from Malham to the old Settle Station ; in fact it 
was only by dint of a hard run the last two miles that we 
saved the last train to Clapham, and our dinner at the 
"Flying Horse Shoe." 

From Malham, the pedestrian who wishes to visit Wharfe- 
dale, may find his way, over the moors and mountains, to 
Threshfield, a distance of seven miles, or to Kilnsey, a 
distance of eight miles. 



CHAPTER V . 

SKITJ.K AXJJ GIGGLESWICK. 



Inns: Golden Lion, Commercial, Royal Oak, White Horse. 

When the poet Gray visited Settle in the last century, he 
thus described the plact: 

"It is a small market town standing" directly under a rocky 
fell ; there are not above a dozen good- looking- houses, and 
the rest are old and low, with little, wooden porticoes in 
front/' 

All is changed now, except the situation, which is as 
pleasant and attractive as ever, and most conveniently central 
for the head-quarters of the tourist bent on exploring Craven 
and the new route to the north. 

Settle is, at the present, a neat clean town, with an 
unmistakeable air of prosperity. The population, at the 
census of 1871, \va-^ 2,163, f whom 1,129 were males, and 
1,034 females, showing an increase, during the decennial 
period, of 577. The number of houses was 420. The 
rateable value is 9197. 

The Church oi the Holy Ascension was erected in the year 
1837. This is a district church the parish church being at 
Giggleswick. There are places of worship for Friends, 
Independents, Wesleyans, and Primitive Methodists, and 
there is a small Roman Catholic chapel. 

The Town Hall was erected in 1832, upon the site of the 
old Tolbooth ; the style uf architecture is Gothic,-- not of the 
purest order. 

There is a Literary Society which was established so long 
ago as the year 1770. This Society has a library in the 
Town Hall buildings, with upwards of 8,000 volumes. The 
members, who are all shareholders, number between 70 
and 80. 



47 

In the Town Hall is also the Club-room of the Chess Club, 
which has about 40 members. The room in which chess, whist, 
and other games are played is well supplied With newspapers. 

Settle has also, in another part of the town, a Mechanics' 
Hall, where is a fair library. Dr. Birkbeck. well known as 
the founder of Mechanics' Institutes, was born in this town, as 
also was Thomas Proctor, the sculptor. 

There is also a Church Institute, with a reading" room, 
library, and billiards. 

It will thus be seen that provision, unusually liberal for a 
small town, is made for the intellectual needs and for the 
amusement of the population of Settle. 

The fine precipice of limestone rock which rises behind 
Settle, to a height of 300 feet, is the most prominent attraction 
of the place. It is known as Castleberg. and formerly its 
crag served as the pointer of a sun-dial whose hours were 
marked along the hill-side by large stones. The grounds 
are kept locked, but admission is secured by s small pay- 
ment. Winding paths lead through pleasant groves to the 
summit, whence is a fine view of Ribblesdale and the neigh- 
bouring hills. As if a fear were entertained that the scenery 
might be regarded as an insufficient return for the expenditure 
incurred at the gate of entrance, artificial attractions have 
been added for the benefit of the young, in the shape of 
swings, see-saws, and merry-go-rounds. 

At the top of the town, and just below Castleberg. is a 
remarkable old stone house bearing the date 1679, with a 
very large number of mullioned windows, some square and 
some round headed. The house is known as "Preston's 
Folly," having been built by a person of that name, v\ho, it is 
said, was unable to finish it. In the middle and recessed 
portion is the door, with singularly unique door-posts. Within, 
there is a fine old oak staircase. The house is now the 
dwelling of a farmer, and has certainly fallen from its former 
splendour. 

Behind this house is the Castleberg Well Spring, yielding a 
copious flow of the clearest water. 

The bridge over the Ribble, not half-a-mile from Settle, 
commands a very pleasing view. The singular form of 
Pennegent is well seen from this point. Archdeacon Paley, 
who received his education at Giggleswick Grammar-school, 
hard by, of which his father was head master, is said 
traditionally to have gazed on the mountain from this point. 



4 8 

and to have likened its shape to that of a raised pie! On 
the banks of the river are some cotton mills. 

Less than a mile from Settle, and on the opposite side of 
the Ribble, is the village of Giggleswick, oddly and yet 
prettily situated within and around a gentle hollow. A stroll 
about this village on a summer evening will be appreciated 
by the lover of English rural scenery; footpaths lead beneath 
stately sycamores and fragrant limes. The cottages are neat, 
and the gardens well can.d for, and in the neighbourhood are 
some handsome residences, each standing within its well 
timbered grounds. 

The Church is dedicated to an obscure patroness. St. 
Alkald or St. Aikilda. It is of the 1'erpendicular style. Upon 
tne pulpit are carved th emblems ot the 12 tribes, with their 
names; on the desk is the inscription: "HEARE is THE 

STANDARDES OF THK ISRAELITES WHEN THE TO CANAN CAM AGANKS 

THE CANAANITES." Ther^ is a brass in the middle aisle to the 
memory of the Rev. Wm. Paley, father of the celebrated 
Archdeacon, who was of a Craven family, and who was for 
54 years master of the grammar-school in this place. 

Giggleswick School, dating from 1553, has become, of late 
years, one of the most important institutions of the kind in the 
north of England. The Board of Governors consists of the 
Chairman, Sir James Kaye Shuttleworth, Bart., the Vice- 
Chairman, Hector Cnristie, Esq., and fourteen other gentlemen 
including members of Parliament, distinguished University 
men, and persons of groat local influence. The character of 
the school will be best understood from a few sentences in 
the "General Statement' 1 which is prefixed to the official 
Class List for Midsummer, 1876 : 

" In harmony with the scheme of the Endowed Schools 
Commission, the aim of the Governors is to provide adequate 
instruction in the subjects mentioned below for boys up to the 
age of nineteen who intend to proceed from school to the 
Universities, to compete for appointments in the Civil Service, 
or to pass the Entrance Examinations for the army ; also to 
provide more completely than has been usual for the education 
of those who wish to qualify themselves at school for their 
business or profession. 

"The intention of the Governors is that Giggleswick should 
be a first-grade modern school, that is a school answering in 
every respect to a first-grade classical school, except that the 
leading subjects of instruction are Latin, Modern Languages 



49 

and Literature, Natural Science and Mathematics. Greek 
except in special cases, and Verse Composition, are omitted. 

"The whole internal organization, management, and disci- 
pline of the school is in the hands of the Head Master. 

"Religious instruction is given generally throughout the 
school in accordance with the teaching of the Church of 
England. But special exemptions are made upon the 
application of parents." 

Great attention is paid to Chemistry and the various 
branches of Physics. The Governors have appropriated over 
2,000 to the erection of the Laboratory, and the Lecture 
room, and the provision of apparatus. 

The arrangements for Boarders are worthy of note. 

"The Governors of the School have recently expended a 
sum of about 20,000 in building a large Boarding House or 
Hostel, in providing Masters' Houses, and other buildings. 
The Hostel resembles the most convenient boarding houses at 
the best large English schools, containing numerous studies 
for the elder boys, and dormitories so arranged that each 
boy has a separate compartment. According to the Hostel 
system the general management is in the hands of the 
Governing Body, so that it is not an object to the Master that 
profit should be made from Boarders. There is at present 
excellent accommodation for about 130 Boarders." 

Large additions have recently been made to the school 
buildings. It is evident that the public appreciate the unusual 
advantages of the school, especially the liberality and breadth 
of the education given, and the moderation of the terms. 

The present Head Master is the Rev. George Style, M.A., 
Fellow of Queen's College, Cambridge. 

Beyond the village the road skirts what is known as 
Giggleswick Scar. This is a range of limestone cliffs, which 
marks the Craven Fault, a vast displacement of strata of the 
highest geological interest. The visitor will find this walk 
below the Scar one extremely agreeable. The bold rocks 
are ornamented with ivy and the indigenous yew, and beneath, 
the fir plantations and hazel trees clothe the broken and 
stony ground. 

There are several caves among these scars, of which the 
most interesting are the Dangerous and the Staircase Caves. 

But the chief feature of interest in this excursion is the 
celebrated Ebbing and Flowing Well. This is a spring of 
an intermittent character, which flows at irregular intervals 



50 

into a stone basin by the road-side. The visitor may wait for 
hours and fail to see the performance, or it may chance to 
occur more than once during his inspection. In very wet or 
very dry weather it does not usually display its peculiarities 
so freely as in seasons of moderate rain. Drayton, in the 
Polyolbion, describes the fountain as ' sometime a nymph,' 

" Among the mountains high 

Of Craven, whose blue heads for caps put on the sky. " 

Flying from a satyr she was changed into a spring; and 

' ' Even as the fearful nymph then thick and short did blow, 
Now made by them a spring, so doth she ebb and flow." 

Modern Science gives a less poetic explanation of this 
peculiarity. The curious intermittent action designated ebbing 
and flowing is due to the singular passage of the water 
through the channels and reservoirs in the limestone rock ; 
syphon-like conduits of a natural character seem to connect 
the chambers in which the water is stored. Variable pressure 
upon the water in the interior, occasioned by diminished or 
augmented rainfall, produces in this manner what appear to 
be capricious ebbings and flowings. This solution, upon the 
principle of the double syphon, was first given, it is believed, 
by the late Thomas Har^reaves, of Settle, whose explanatory 
model may be seen in the Library of the Institute at Settle. 

The accompanying wood-cut will render this interesting 
phenomenon easy of comprehension :- - 

A, the great basin formed in the rock. B. the duct that 
conveys the water to C, the smaller basin. D, the duct that 
conveys the water from C to E, the well. F, crevices through 
which the water escapes into the duct D when the stream is 
not sufficient to fill the duct B. G, crevices through which the 
water escapes from A to C, when A is overcharged. It will 
be seen that B and D form each a syphon ; B draws off the 
water from the basin A,* and fills the smaller basin C until it 
runs over at D : now D being wider than B soon empties the 
basin C, and then the stream ceases until C is filled up again, 
thus causing the reciprocation. 

The irregularity of the reciprocation is caused thus : B 
draws off the water from A faster than it is supplied by the 
spring, consequently A becomes empty, and no reciprocation 
takes place until it is filled again to the height of the syphon 
B, when the fulness of A causes a most powerful one, and 



5' 

Ix-fure the well goes down to its proper medium, another, but 
less powerful one, takes place, and the interval between each 
flux and reflux increases, until A is emptied again. In dry 
weather there is no reciprocation, because the water is in- 
sufficient to fill B, and it escapes through the crevices F ; and 
after much rain the basin C is too powerfully supplied by B 
and the crevices G. 






From Giggleswick Well, the visitor may climb the steep 
hill above, called Buckhaw Brow, and thence to the summit of 
the Ox Scar, whence a grand view may be enjoyed. Turning- 
eastward, he may reach Ribblesdale at Stackhouse or at 
Little Stainforth. 

Above Stackhouse is a Cairn 80 feet in diameter, in which 
human bones have been found. 

Robin Hood's Mill is the name given to a spot between 
Little Stainforth and Stackhouse, where a rumbling noise may 
be heard below the ground, doubtless caused by a subter- 
ranean waterfall, such as are not uncommon in this district. 

Stainforth is a pretty village on the Ribble. Below the 
bridge between Great and Little Stainforth, is Stainforth Foss 



or Force, where the river, amidst beautiful surrounding- scenery, 
rushes down a contracted channel. The view at this spot is 
one that should not be missed. 

On the Cowside Beck, which falls into the Ribble at 
Stainforth, is Catterick or Catrigg- Foss, where the mountain 
stream descends the glen in a cascade of six or seven falls. 

The return to Settle is by Langcliffe, where is a modern 
church, and in the middle of the valley a large cotton 
(doubling) mill. 

Langcliffe Hall is said to have been occasionally visited by 
Sir Isaac Newton, who was on intimate terms with the then 
owner of the hall, Major Dawson. 

One of the finest walks from Settle is that over the mountains 
to Malham. 

The hills behind Castleberg are easily accessible. There 
is a narrow road from Settle, by which the pedestrian leaves 
Castleberg on the right and so g-ains the top of the hill. 
There is a second road by which Castleberg is passed on the 
left. There are splendid views of the south and west all the 
way up, and from the top of the ridge. By the mountain 
roads Malham is five or six miles only from Settle ; Gordale 
is a mile further. The direction given us by a native was : 
" Take the road leaving- Castleberg on the left, climb the 
hill, and when some distance beyond it climb the ' bits of 
hills ' further on." Walter White seems to have undertaken 
the jcurney upon some such directions as these: "an old 
man who was passing strongly urged us to keep the road ; 
we should be sure to lose ourselves, ' and happen never g-et 
to Maum at all.' " However, though in some doubt when in 
sight of Stockdale, by keeping toward the east he found his 
way. Not every traveller afoot, it should be said, has the 
genial " Londoner's " notion of going across country. 

Another excursion from Settle may be made to Long 
Preston, where is a fifteenth century church ; and to Hellifield, 
which boasts a " peel," or square tower, built by Lawrence 
Hamerton in the nineteenth year of Henry VI. On the 
other side of the river from Long Preston is Wigglesworth, 
(Inn : The Plough), where are the remains of an ancient 
hall, and where are sulphurous and chalybeate spring's, which 
capricious Fortune has not been pleased to raise to the 
reputation of Harrogate or Tunbridg-e Wells. 



S3 

Distances from Settle : To Malham by mountain road, 6 
miles; by Hellifield 14 miles; to Long" Preston, 4 miles; 
to Horton, 6 miles ; to Clapham, 6 miles ; to Ingleton 10 
miles. 




Spa li'el!, Wiggleinvorth. 



54 



CHAPTER VI. 
SCALEBEK, ATTERMIRK, AND THE VICTORIA CAVE. 



@NE of the most interesting and enjoyable excursions that 
can be made from Settle is that to the mountains 
immediately behind the town. The walk which we are 
g, about to describe.- is one that can be accomplished 
easily in four hours, allowing time for resting, for admiring- 
the waterfall, and for inspecting the Cave. 

We took the mountain-road to Malham at the upper partof 
the town, and with a little steep climbing soon found ourselves 
on high ground overlooking the valley. Following this road 
for a mile and somewhat more, we came to a bridge which 
crosses a mountain torrent. Instead of crossing this bridg-e, 
we turned over a stile to the right and a few steps brought us 
within view of Scaleber Force. 

This is a cascade of great beauty ; the stream falls down 
the slope of a mossy rock, and presently vanishes in a thickly 
wooded glen. 

This walk might be prolonged to the summit of Rye-loaf, a 
a brown and rounded mountain commanding an extensive 
view. But we retraced our steps until we came to the road 
which leads to Stockdale. From this road we turned off by a 
stile on the left. Here we paused to enjoy a singularly 
beautiful prospect. Before us stood a green mound known as 
Sugar-loaf, or Salt-pie ; beyond, a magnificent assemblage of 
rocks and cliffs : on the left, a mountain with craggy escarp- 
ments, and crowned by a cairn : to the right, a succession of 
low, broken, rounded summits; and still more to the right, 
less broken and more even hill-tops, yet supported by per- 
pendicular precipices. The entrances to the Attermire and 
other caves may be seen from this spot ; the Victoria Cave 
is hidden. 



55 

Advancing", we crossed the site of an ancient mere, from 
which it has been surmised that the place derived its name 
Otter-mere, corrupted into Attermire. We made for a gate 
near the butts which are used by the North Craven Rifles fcr 
their practice. We then ascended a rugged path, leaving 
several hills known as Warrendale Knots and Beacon Scar 
(Ben Scar) on the left, and Attermire Scar on the right, and 
skirting along the base of Brentscar soon arrived at the 
entrance to the Victoria Cave, which may be recognized by the 
mass of di'bris on the slope below the approach. A glorious 
point of view it is! And, though the ancient British dwellers 
took refuge in this lovely spot for safety, and not for the sake, 
certainly, of any picturesqueness in the views commanded 
from this mountain abode, we could not but reflect that the 
same prospect stretched before their eyes, which we, in 
happier circumstances, were now surveying. In front is 
Brent Scar. Looking to the left, over Barnoldswick and over 
Gargrave. over Warrendale Knots towers Pendle Hill, near 
which on a clear day, with the help of a glass, may be 
discerned the town of Clitheroe. To the right is the valley of 
the Wenning, and beyond, that of the Lune. Ingleton is 
visible over Stackhouse ; Bentham lies in the valley, and 
beyond is Bowlands. Still farther, are the hills about Lan- 
caster, and a little more to the right, the summits of the more 
southerly mountains of the Lake district heave in view. Just 
below us is Ribblesdale, with Moughton Fell rising as its 
western boundary. Looking more to the right, we see 
Ingleton Fells, and on the extreme right the long flat 
summit of Ingleborough. 

The Victoria Cave is situated about a mile and a half from 
Settle, in a north-easterly direction, at an elevation of about 
900 feet above the town and the river Ribble, and 1440 feet 
above the sea-level. We will tell the story of its discovery, 
as told us by the discoverer himself, Mr. Joseph Jackson. 

"It was," said he, "in the year 1838, the year of Queen 
Victoria's coronation, that the cave was first discovered. It 
was this that led to its being named 'The Victoria Cave.' A 
dog was really the first discoverer; he went into a hole of the 
rock and came out at another place This aroused my 
curiosity. Entering in with some difficulty, I found that I was 
in a cave, but a cave filled up nearly to the top. Creeping on, 
however, I found it more lofty than at the entrance. The 
roof was hung with stalactites, and the surface was covered 



56 

with bones of recent animals. Looking- among- the bones, I 
discovered a coin, in a part of the cave where water drips in. 
It was plain, therefore, that the cave contained remains of the 
presence, not only of brutes, but of man. These chance finds 
led to a search, and to the consequent discovery, not only of 
bones and teeth, but of coins and other relics of human 
occupation. At that time we worked to a depth of two feet; 
and nothing", in the shape of bronzes and other antiquities, 
was found at a greater depth than this. 

"In the year 1870 a Committee was formed thoroug-hly to 
explore the cave by digging and removing- the contents to a 
depth of six feet throughout. Here we discovered many 
Roman antiquities. In digging" a shaft near the entrance of 
the cave, we met with bones of extinct animals, at a depth 
of about 25 feet below the surface. At a greater depth than 
this nothing was found. As we advanced farther into 
the interior they were met with at a depth not exceeding- 
15 feet. 

"We have found teeth or bones of elephant, rhinoceros, 
three kinds of bears, hyaena, bison, reindeer, wolf, andhippo- 
potamus. A bone, said by high authorities to be that of a man, 
was found along- with those of the extinct animals. 

"The explorations are still going on under the direction 
of a scientific committee. I am superintendent of the work, 
and am there usually every day. The expenses are met 
by a grant from the British Association, and by public 
subscription." 

The bulk of the bones which' have been discovered, and 
many of the antiquities, are deposited in the museum of 
Giggleswick School, and can be seen by application to the 
Head Master. 

Some few of the Roman remains are in the British Museum. 

Mr. Jackson, who resides at Settle, has himself a small but 
highly interesting collection of relics of antiquity, discovered 
in the Victoria and other caves, which, on the occasion of our 
visit, he courteously permitted us to inspect. Among the 
many objects of interest this collection contains, we especially 
noticed the following- : of stone, several whetstones, both 
round and pyramidical, some fine round sling stones, a 
variety of flint instruments, several discs (of uncertain use), 
spindle-whorls, chert implements of different kinds. In some 
of these implements are circular holes, the splayed form of 
which seems to indicate that they were drilled with a blunt 



57 

tool. Of JIOM, many needles and pins of primitive forms, what 
appear to be handles pierced in the centre, bone fibulae or 
dress fasteners, arrow-heads and arrow-tips, shuttles, combs, 
fish-hooks, and spindle whorls. Of glass, beads of various 
sizes, portions of ring's. (There are also beads of amber., 
Of iron, spear heads, battle-axe heads, much rusted , ring's, 
fibulae, and what seems to be a large key. Of bronze, 
bracelets, fiibulae, ornaments, and various fragments. Of 
lead, some pierced discs. Of silver, a circular-headed or 
ornamented pin. There is also a small enamelled ring". 

This collection also contains a few coins of much interest. 
One bears on the obverse, " CONSTANTINUS MAX. AUG." The 
reverse bears the legend "EXERCITUS," with the monogram 
Constantine adopted after his conversion, compounded of the 
initial letters in Greek of the name, Christ. This coin is 
believed to have been struck at Constantinople. Another 
urass coin is Hadrian's, between A.D. 117 138. It bears the 
head of that emperor, with the face to the right. The 
inscription in full reads, "!MP. CJESAR TRAJANUS HADRIANUS 
AUG. P. M. T. R. Cos. III." Reverse, "MoNETA AVGVSTI, 
S. C." Another coin is a third brass of Aurelian, between 
A.D. 270 275. It bears on the obverse "!MP. AURELIANUS 
AUG.." with the head of the emperor to the right, with 
diadem and cuirass ; on the reverse, as nearly as can be 
made out. is the sun, with two captives at his feet, and 
'ORIENS AUG. XXI " 

To return to our excursion : The old entrance to the cave 
we saw upon our left, above us At the opening the cave is 
nearly 100 feet in width, and is now about 32 feet in height 
from the bottom to the top. 

We soon found the sticky clay anything but an agreeable 
carpet to the cave, and could have wished a pavement of the 
stalagmite which was found in layers with clay above and 
below it. The workmen were engaged in cutting and blasting 
a more commodious roadway into the interior of the cave. 
With their help, and by the light of candles, we explored the 
more accessible parts of this singularly interesting cavern. 

Chamber D is distinguished by a dome which rises, as a 
kind of architectural feature, above the rest of the cave. In 
this chamber were found bones in great numbers and variety, 
--269 specimens for the year 1875 having been classified by 
Professor Busk. 



58 

We next penetrated the Birkbcck Gallery, which extends to 
a distance of 112 feet from the above-mentioned dome. It is 
a long gallery, with holes or drops, which make it no easy 
work to proceed to the extremity. A glazy moist stalactite 
covers the walls. On the right, before entering the gallery, 
is a small passage or hole, where bones were found. 

Returning from the Birkbeck Gallery, we entered chamber 
B, which is the finest in the cave This chamber is, with A, 
upon the left as you enter. Water lies in the bottom, where a 
shaft was sunk from above to a depth of 25 feet. The 
stalagmite in this chamber was six feet in thickness. 

Chambers A and B were the dwelling-places of the human 
inhabitants who, in historic times, took shelter and refuge in 
this strange retreat. Fancy pictured the unhappy refugees, 
with the relics of their civilization about them, hiding from 
the barbarian invader in these gloomy recesses, crouching by 
their wretched fires, and feeding upon the flesh of their 
threatened flocks and herds ! 

We next crept into chamber C, where is a well. In this 
cavity no excavations have yet been made. 

An admirable and most interesting account of the Victoria 
Cave will be found in Mr. Boyd Dawkins' work on "Cave 
Hunting,'' pp. 81125. 

The interest of the cave is two-fold. It was the habitation 
of human beings in historic times. The works of art which 
have been discovered, and the evident traces of occupation 
by civilized men, have awakened speculation, which seems to 
lead to the conclusion that in the fifth century this cave was 
a place of refuge for Britons who, after the withdrawal of 
the Romans, were exposed to the invasions of the fierce Scots 
and Picts from the north, and of the Angles and Saxons from 
the south and east. 

Mr. Boyd Dawkins says: "The presence of these works 
of art, in association with the remains of the domestic animals 
used for food, is only to be satisfactorily accounted for in the 
way proposed by Mr. Dixon. Men accustomed to luxury and 
refinement were compelled, by the pressure of some great 
calamity, to flee for refuge, and to lead a half savage life in 
these inclement caves, with whatever they could transport 
thither of their property. They were also accompanied by 
their families, for the number of personal ornaments and the 
spindle whorls imply the presence of the female sex. We 
may also infer that they were cut off from the civilization to 



59 

which they had been accustomed, since they were compelled 
to extemporize spindle whorls out of the vessels that they 
brought with them, instead of using those that had been 
manufactured for the purpose." 

But this Cave has not merely an antiquarian, it has also a 
geological interest. There have been discovered in its cham- 
bers vast quantities of bones and teeth of animals of various 
species. These have been carefully arranged and classified, 
and have served as material of great value to the geologist 
in determining the climate of the region at various epochs, 
and in describing the wonderful changes which its whole 
aspect and its physical condition have undergone. 

The fullest account of the discoveries which have taken 
place in the Victoria Cave, since the publication of Mr. Boyd 
Dawkins' work, will be found in the successive reports of 
Mr. R. H. Tiddeman. furnished to the British Association for 
the advancement of science. 

One of the most noticeable among the ''finds " was a bone, 
believed by Professor Busk to be a human fiibula, in beds 
considered to be pre-glacial. This discovery has been deemed 
important in its bearing upon the antiquity of man. The 
presence of man is also considered to be indicated by certain 
marks upon bones which, it is thought, must have been made 
by instruments of a rude and primitive character. 

The question of greatest geological interest upon which 
light is believed to have been cast by the exploration of the 
Victoria Cave, has been thus stated : 

" Are the glacial deposits which rest upon the older bone 
beds, containing the extinct mammals and man, in the position 
which they occupied at the close of the glacial conditions, or 
have they subsequently fallen into their present site?" The 
former alternative is adopted. Mr. Tiddeman gives it as his 
opinion that "it is clear from the position of the boulders 
beneath all the screes, that they are a portion of the general 
glacial covering of the valleys and hill-sides which was left 
by the Ice Sheet at the time of its disappearance." 

The ice-borne boulders in question are blocks of silurian 
grit and of carboniferous limestone, with one or two of 
carboniferous sandstone. 

We returned to Settle by way of the hills over-hanging 
Ribblesdale, and found this an agreeable variety of route. As 
we neared the brow of the hill we paused to enjoy the view. 
Opposite us, on the other side of the valley, the hamlet of 



6o 

Stackhouse nestles under Kelko Wood. Beneath us lies the 
village of Langcliffe, with its modern church, k and its cotton 
mill in the middle of the valley, amongst the greenest of 
pastures. On the right, Ribblesdale stretches northwards 
towards Horton, the carriage-road and the railroad follow- 
ing the course of the river. Away to the north-west rise 
Ingleborough, Whernside, and the fells northward to Cam 
Fell. Quite to the right is Stainforth, with its fine craggy 
Scar, and Winskill behind it ; while the unmistakeable 
outline of Pennegent completes the charming prospect. 




Warrcndale Knots. 



6i 



CHAPTER VII. 



CLAPHAM AND INGLEBOROUGH. 



Inns: The Flying- Horse Shoe, New Inn. 

r HERE cannot be a more desirable centre for the explorer 
of western Craven than the Flying- Horse Shoe, at 

ljj Clapham. This hostelry is close to the railway station, 
and is therefore conveniently situated for excursions in 
which the iron road may be of service. The house is a neat 
and unpretending- one. but it affords not only accommodation 
but comfort in abundance. The landlord, Mr. Coates, has 
kept the house for 21 years, and can give every information 
about the country. Waggonettes, dog--carts, and flies, are 
to be had. as well as saddle horses and ponies. The rig-ht 
of showing- the famous Cave is entrusted to the landlord of 
the inn. who can also procure g-uides for the ascent of Ingle- 
boroug-h. Parties, staying- in the house have the privileg-e of 
fishing- in the preserved waters. A farm is attached to the 
inn. and the poultry-yard and dairy are consequently at the 
service of visitors. Ten beds are made up in the house. 
Distance from Settle, seven miles. 

The walk from Settle and Giggleswick to Clapham is a 
pleasant one. Near the road are Lawkland, Feizor, Wharfe 
and Austwick. To the north are the slopes and rocks which 
form the southern boundary of the mighty Ingleborough. 

Austwick has been called the "Gotham of Yorkshire." 
In former times, the Austwick "carles/' as they were called, 
were credited with all the odd stories of stupidity currc nt in 
Craven ; they seem to have been the general butts of the 
wit of the country side. It was they who tried to get the 
bull over the gate, who made an attempt to wall in the 



62 

cuckoo, to have fine growing spring weather all the year 
round, who made an assault on a watch, "a tick 'em tack 
'em fella wi' a lang tail," who stuck the parish whittle in 
the ground under a black cloud, and wanted to know where 
to find it next day, who wheeled sunshine into the barn to 
dry the hay with, who interpreted the gurgle of a drowning 
man in a pond, as ''good, good, good," giving rise to the 
proverb, "The best at the bottom, as the Austwick carles 
say." 

On the hill called Norber, above Austwick, there is a 
most remarkable group of Bowder Stones ; there are several 
hundreds of them standing in th<j most eccentric postures ; 
some are poised on single pivots, others apparently standing 
erect in spite of their divergence from the centre of gravity, 
and the outline of others bears a fantastic resemblance to 
some living or inanimate thing. The largest contains about 
four hundred cubic feet, and will therefore weigh little less 
than thirty tons! The crust of the hill is limestone, but 
below its edge may be seen the junction with the slate, Jhe 
same as the Bowders. From this elevation there is an 
excellent view, especially along the valley which terminates 
in Ribblesdale, at Swarth Moor ; and, in this direction, 
will be seen Wharfe Gill, a deep wooded glen with stream 
and waterfall. 

A walk of about a mile and a half brings the tourist from 
the station to Clapham village, where is a very comfortable 
hotel, called the New Inn. The village is a remarkably pretty 
one. Clapham Beck, a bright, lively brook, runs adown 
through the midst, and the houses are on either side. And 
pretty houses they are, with their fronts covered with roses 
and honeysuckle. The bridge commands a charming view 
of the beck, as itmurmurs amidst the overhanging foliage. 
At the top of the village, on the left of the stream, stands 
the church, from the pretty grave-yard of which may be seen 
a little waterfall, whose soothing music harmonizes with the 
rural, peaceful scene. 

But we must not linger here ; for it is to be presumed 
that the visitor has come to Clapham that he may see its 
wonderful cave. 

Clapham or Ingleborough Cave is the property of James 
Farrer, Esq. It is guarded at the entrance by iron gates, 
which are kept locked. Admission is only to be obtained 
by application to Knowles, the appointed guide, who has 



63 

filled thi-s office for 26 years : he lives in the village, in a 
cottage on the south side of the river, between the bridge 
and the church. It is necessary to apply at the guide's 
house before leaving the village. Supposing that Knowles 
is at the cave, and you have to find your way to the cave 
mouth alone, you must apply to Mr. Farrer's steward for 
permission to walk through the private grounds. This beauti- 
ful route to the cave was formerly open to all comers, without 
reserve, but the privilege was on several occasions so 
shamefully abused that some discretion is now used in granting 
it. Having obtained the necessary permission, you must enter 
the grounds at the gate marked " Private," and keeping to 
the road on the left all the way you will have a charming 
walk of about a mile and a half to the gate which bounds these 
lovely grounds. You must then keep straight on along the 
path until you see the entrance of the cave on your left. 

If you are fortunate enough to have the company of the 
guide through the grounds, you may perhaps get a stolen 
peep at a pretty little waterfall and rustic bridge which are 
situated near the hall. 

A charge is authorised of half-a-crown for two visitors, 
and a shilling each for a larger party ; this pays for the 
necessary candles and for the services of the guide. 

There is no difficulty in exploring these subterraneous 
galleries, unless it be considered such that, in one place, it 
is necessary to proceed for several yards in a stooping 
posture. The guidi advances first, and he and the members 
of the party are supplied with candles fixed in a kind of 
battledore. Here and there caution is necessary to avoid 
striking the head against dependent stalactites. 

The cavc-rn is in the limestone rock. The water that 
flows gently through its passages, and that lies in its silent 
pools, enters, it is believed, from the hill-side above, by a 
cavity in the mountain, known as ''Gaping Ghyll/' where a 
mountain stream falls into a cave 250 feet in depth. Many 
of the stones which lie upon the surface, and the brown 
sand beneath the explorer's feet, are of the mill-stone grit 
formation. The entire length of the cavern was, until 
recently. 702 yards, i. c. : measured to what was called the 
"Giant's Hall." It should be mentioned that, although 
what is termed the Old Hall has been known for a long 
time, the rest of the cavern was opened up only in 1837. 
But in 1872 a flood of unusual magnitude rendered the 



64 

further portion of the cavern inaccessible, so that the dimen- 
sions of the present cave are far less than above mentioned. 

An excellent plan of the cavern has been published, and 
the visitor can inspect a copy in the entrance hall of the 
Flying- Horse Shoe. The following are the several portions 
as they have been named, in the order in which they 
occur: After the Old Cave, the Vestibule or Eldon Hall, 
the Stalactite Gallery, and then the Pillar Hall. A gallery 
of some length then leads to the Ladies' Cushion and the 
First Gothic Arch. The Long Gallery, where are the Second 
Bells, leads to the Creeping Place, and beyond this is 
Grimes's Arch. The remaining portions of the cavern, as 
marked on the plan, are now inaccessible. Just beyond the 
Creeping Place is an extension to the right, which is soon 
found to be a cul-de-sac. 

The stalactites and stalagmites are of varied, curious, and 
occasionally of bee u i.ful character. They assume the most 
fantastic shapes. Here is a pair of pillars resembling the 
fore-legs of an elephant, there a bee-hive, and yonder a 
jockey's cap. An inverted forest in one part depends most 
gracefully from the roof; in another a bed of coral appears 
to be growing downwards A massive pillar rears itself 
mid-way in the passage ; by the wall a range of organ 
pipes yield excellent music in response to the strokes of the 
guide's staff. A fairy structure of slender columns stands 
in a miniature cavern, and when lights are placed behind 
it, is mirrored in a still, dark pool. There is "water, 
water, everywhere; " in one place a pool, four feet and a 
half in depth, reflects the candles' flame ; again, the water 
drips swiftly from the roof; and yet again, a murmuring 
waterfall breaks the quiet of the scene. Dripping water is 
ever forming new products. In most paits of the cave old 
water-marks are visible, shewing the height at which the 
water stood before the opening up of the cave. The visitor 
is thus reminded what gentle, but mighty force it was, that 
shaped this wondrous, winding cavern beneath the massive 
mountain. 

A curious experiment was made by Mr. Farrer, to determine 
the length of time occupied in the very gradual formation of 
the stalagmites. The "Jockey Cap" was selected for the 
purpose ; the daily drip of water was measured, the growth 
of the stalagmite in six years was ascertained by observation, 
and the proportion of solid matter in the water being known, 



65 

it was calculated that the "Jockey Cap'' had been 259 years 
in course of formation. 

The reader will be glad to have some authoritative account 
of the processes which have contributed to the formation of 
the marvels of the cavern. We cannot do better than lay 
before him a few sentences from " Rivers and Mountains of 
Yorkshire," by Professor Phillips, the most distinguished of 
Yorkshire geologists. 

'The roof and sides of the cavern are everywhere inter- 
sected by fissures which were formed in the consolidation of 
the stone. To these fissures, and the water which has passed 
down them, we owe the formation of the cave and its rich 
furniture of stalactites. The direction of the most marked 
fissures is almost invariably N.W. and S.E., and when certain 
' master fissures ' occur, the roof of the cave is usually more 
elevated, the sides spread out right and left, and often ribs 
and pendants of brilliant stalactite placed at regular distances 
convert the rude fissure into a beautiful aisle of primeval 
architecture. Below most of the smaller fissures hang multi- 
tudes of delicate translucent tubules, each giving passage to 
drops of water. Splitting the rock above, these fissures admit, 
or formerly admitted, dropping water; continued through the 
floor, the larger refts permit, or formerly permitted, water to 
enter or flow out of the cave. By this passage of water, 
continued for ages on ages, the original fissure was in the 
first instance enlarged, through the corrosive action of streams 
of acidulate water. By the withdrawal of the streams to other 
fissures, a different process was called into operation; the 
fissure was bathed by drops, instead of streams of water; 
i these drops, exposed to air currents and evaporation, yielded 
up the free carbonic acid to the air, and the salt of lime to the 
rock. Every line of drip became the axis of a stalactitical 
pipe from the roof; every surface bathed by thin films of 
liquid became a sheet of sparry deposit. The floor grew up 
under the droppings into fantastic heaps of stalagmite, which 
sometimes reaching the pipes, unite roof and floor by pillars 
of exquisite beauty. '" :; 

Ingleborough is the grandest of the Yorkshire mountains; 
although exceeded in height by Micklefell and Whernside, 
its position and conformation givvi it a commanding interest. 
It rises to an elevation of 2,361 feet above the level of the sea. 

* For a very vivid description of this cave the reader is referred to Mr. W. White's 
"Month in Yorkshire." 



66 

The name is variously explained : it may be the mountain 
of the ingle or beacon, or the mountain of the Angles, the 
English. 

The mountain is usually climbed from Clapham on the south 
side. No difficulty is encountered in the ascent. The easiest 
and most gradual path is from the old road between Clapham 
and Ingleton, about half way between the two villages, and 
there is a cart-road from this point to the summit. From 
Settle, the nearest route is by the bridle path on the right 
from the top of Buckhaw Brow to Feizor, through Wharfe, 
and by a farm-house on the fell, called Crummock. 

The ascent of Ingleborough from Chapel-le-dale is one of 
some interest. On the way you pass a " vast plateau" of huge 
blocks of limestone, set with a regularity as if a paviour had 
placed them there." The view gradually expands northwards 
and eastwards. The latter part of the climb is somewhat 
rugged and steep.*- 

Ingleborough has geological peculiarities which are de- 
serving of attention. "Its conical mass,'' says Phillips, "is 
crowned by a nearly flaNcap of mill-stone grit, and is founded 
on a vast tabular surface of time-worn limestone rocks, these 
in their turn supported by huge cliffs of massy and slaty 
silurian strata." 

The summit of Ingleborough is very remarkable. It is a 
vast flat, nearly a mile in circumference. The joke in Craven 
is that there used formerly to be horse races on this singular 
level. 

Ingleborough was a great hill fort, probably of the Britons. 
The line of defence was a wall constructed like some still 
existing in North Wales. Some horse-shoe shaped hut 
foundations still remain. They may be compared with those 
still so perfect on Yr Eifel in Carnarvonshire. 

The view from the top of Ingleborough has been thus 
graphically described by Mr. Dobson : 

" Whernside kept guard before us on the north, and allowed 
us no peep into the dales beyond, but over its lofty summit we 
saw some distant hills. To the east there was Penyghent, 
with the valley of the Ribble stretching southward towards 
Settle, and northwards to its source. To the south was a 
beautiful and varied landscape, our view being bounded by 
the broad mass of Pendle, whose summit is so prominent an 

For an interesting account of an ascent of Ingleborough from Chapel-le-dale, sec 
Mr. Win. Dobson's " Rambles by the Ribble." 



6; 

object from the greatest part of the Ribble valley ; and the 
more humble peak of Longridge. To the west there was a 
beautiful extent of country stretching' towards Morcambe, 
whose expansive sands, covered with the high tide, were 
broken by Warton Crag and Arnside Knott. In the distance 
Peel Castle can often be seen. Nearer us the Crook of Lune 
could be traced in the winding's of that beautiful river, whose 
stream, like a blue streak in the landscape, was visible ; and 
Hornby Castle appeared a picturesque spot on its proud 
eminence. A cloud hid from us John O'Gaunt's old castle at 
Lancaster. The Furness Fells were spread before us in their 
picturesque grouping, as well as some others of the lake 
mountains. We could not discern the estuary of the Ribble, 
though it is often seen from the top ; indeed, at times the 
mouths of the Mersey and the Dee are discernible, whilst the 
glass discloses the peaks of the Isle of Man." 

Mr. Dobson adds some particulars as to the botanical 
wealth of Ingleborough. 




68 



CHAPTER VIII. 



INGLKTON, CHAPEL-LE-DAT.E, AND KINGSDAI.K. 




Inns: At Ingleton, Ingleborough Hotel; at Chapel-le-dale. 
the Hill House; at Ribble H-'ad, Gearstones Inn. 

"E started from Ingleton early in the morning-, for a 
long" day's work lay before us. In this picturesque 
village meet the two rivers, Doe and Greta, the 
former, often called the Thornton Beck, flowing- down 
from Kingsdale. The view from Ingleton church-yard is 
very pretty. The ground is strangely broken up, and the 
houses of the village are dotted about the hill-side. There is 
a cotton mill close by the "meeting- of waters," and further 
down, a handsome viaduct, by which the railway to Kirkby 
Lonsdale crosses the valley. A deaf old man let us into the 
church, and told us that he had a " awp .. nnv " a day for 
winding- the church clock, which mad'-, as he calculated, 
a yearly salary of 15s. 2.d. Beyond this information his 
powers of speech seemed enable to go further than a groan 
of "Ay," in answer to 'every remark. The church having 
been rebuilt in 1743, "at the charge of the inhabitants," has 
a very plain and very modern look about it, except the 
arches and pillars within, and the tower. Antiquarians, 
however, would be charmed with the old Norman font, which 
for a long" time was unused and neglected, but which is really 
very interesting-, with its interlaced round arched arcading", 
and its twelve carved figures, including- "Christ riding" upon 
an ass. 1 ' 

There was formerly no tolerable hotel at Ing-leton, but four 
or five years ago was opened the Ingleborough Hotel, a large 
handsome house. 



69 

Leaving- the village and turning- to the left, we were soon 
in the lonely valley of the Greta, where for four miles, we met 
no human being". Between the rocky broken moors of Ingle- 
borough, which Gray called "that huge monster of nature," 
and an older writer ''that huge creature of God,'' on the 
right, and the slopes ot Whernside on the left, the road runs 
parallel wijh the Greta, through a scene of desolation indeed. 
If it struck us as such on a bright August morning, what must 
be the impression it creates in the twilight of a drear 
December afternoon ? Passing the mountain torrents which 
came down the slopes crowned by the craggy escarpments of 
limestone, we proceeded up the valley, which seems given up 
to the innumerable lapwings, whose pitiable cry appears to 
harmonise with the wild solitude of the dale. 

At length we reached what seemed to be the source of the 
river, in a little hollow in the valley below the road. Crags 
stained with lichen rise above the source, and the bright 
grassy banks contrast pleasingly with the rocks. But the fact 
is. this is no source. The Greta has only been playing" the 
pranks common to these rivers in the limestone; tired, as it 
were of daylight, it tak<;-s a plunge into the darkness beneath, 
and. after a subterranean course, reappears in full flow, and 
with a swift current, on the surface of the earth ! However, 
it is a lovely and romantic spot. From this point the scenery 
becomes less wild, and a tew ash trees, thorns, and hazels 
adorn the valley. But there is no Greta; only a dry torrent 
bed. 

We now reached the prettily situated hamlet of Chapel-le- 
Dale. The tiny church, which has been immortalized by 
Southey in his Doctor. " is the only place of worship within 
many a mile in fact between Ingleton and Hawes. and the 
congregation the clergyman told us consists of people who 
come from a distance, some of them as far as six miles. The 
little flaxen haired maiden of eight, who showed us the 
church, very touchingly pointed to a little grave, saying. 
'That's my brother's! " Entering" the church, we found that 
it had been restored and re-pewed in 1869; it has some 
modern painted windows, with memorial brasses. 

The reader will be pleased to peruse, in this place. Southey's 
charming description of this secluded spot. 

"The little church, called Chapel-le-Dale. stands about a 
bow-shot from the family house. There they had all been 
carried to the font ; there they had each led his bride to the 



;o 

altar ; and there they had, each in his turn, been borne upon 
the shoulders of their friends and neighbours. Earth to earth 
they had been consigned there for so many generations, that 
half of the soil of the church-yard consisted of their remains. 
A hermit who might wish his grave to be as quiet as his cell, 
could imagine no fitter resting place. On three sides was an 
irregular low stone wall, rather to mark the limits of the 
sacred ground, than to enclose it; on the fourth it was bounded 
by the brook whose waters proceed, by a subterranean 
channel from Weathercote Cave. Two or three alders and 
rowan trees hung over the brook, and shed their leaves and 
seeds into the stream. Some bushy hazels grew at intervals 
along the lines of the wall ; and a few ash trees as the winds 
had sown them. To the east and west some fields adjoin it in 
that state of half-cultivation which gives a human character 
to solitude : to the south, on the other side of the brook, the 
common, with its limestone rocks peering everywhere above 
the ground, extended to the foot of Ingleborough. A craggy 
hill, feathered with birch, sheltered it from the north. 

The turf was as soft and fine as that of the adjoining hills ; 
it was seldom broken so scanty was the population to which 
it was appropriated ; scarcely a thistle or a nettle deformed 
it, and the few tomb-stones which had been placed there, were 
now themselves half-buried. The sheep came over the wall 
when they listed, and sometimes took shelter in the porch 
from the storm. Their voices and the cry of the kite wheeling 
above were the only sounds that were heard there, except 
when the single bell which hung in it niche ovr the entrance- 
tinkled for service on the Sabbath day. or with a slower 
tongue gave notice that one of the children of the soil was 
returning to the earth from which he sprung." 

The great sight of th<.- place is Weathercote, to see which 
the visitor must turn in at a gate on the left hand side of the 
road, and apply at Mr. Metcalfe's house for admission, for 
which a shilling is charged to each visitor. The reader of 
Mr. Boyd Dawkins' book on "Cave Hunting." will remember 
the interesting diagram given to show how the Greta, or 
Dalebeck (as he calls it) pursues an underground course in 
the clefts of the limestone, and how it is fed by the water 
which flows down Weathercote, and reveals its presence at 
Jingle Pot, and again at Hurtle Pot. 

A door admits to a little grove from which a flight of rough 
hewn steps leads down to ; the cave. You pass under a spacious 



natural arch, and emerge into a vast cave open to the sky. 
The air of the cave is filled with spray ; and this seems 
natural enough when you look before you. A glorious water- 
fall, coming from the recesses of the limestone, plunges into 
the abyss below. It is a grand and memorable scene. Rocks 
tower above before on each side. The precipitous cliffs 
are clothed with moss, and sparkle with myriads of spray 
drops. As the sun shines out a lovely rainbow spans the cave ; 
and on such a forenoon as we saw it, comes and goes with 
sunshine and cloud. But we wished to have a nearer view of 
the cascade, and scrambled down, amidst loose masses and 
fragments of rock, into the hollow beneath. Crags overhang 
your head ; the everlasting boom of the waterfall possesses 
your hearing; the air is filled with spray; the rainbow 
changes its form as you alter your position. Look up ! Ferns 
and grasses wave on the heights above ; the sycamores meet 
over the chasm to whose depths you have descended; the 
patch of blue sky discernible above the cave is flecked by 
clouds. And now we rushed behind the fall, but only to 
retreat, for a few seconds will suffice to drench the adventurer 
to the very skin. 

Jingle Pot is dry and uninteresting; but Hurtle Pot is well 
worth seeing. It is a vast circular opening in the earth, with 
sycamores and beeches meeting overhead. By an opening to 
the south the descent is practicable down a bank of sand. At 
the bottom we found a deep, rocky-bedded pool. The play of 
sunlight penetrating the trees above gleamed upon the water, 
and created a tremulous light upon the rocky side. \Y< 
peered into the cavern containing the water: nothing but 
ness, darkness, and drip ! The scene must be awsome 
on a gloomy or stormy day. Needless to say. the place is 
haunted by a ''boggart! " 

We proceeded on our journey, and looking back, admired 
the flat summit of Ingleborough. and turning to our left saw 
the L-ss memorable but even loftier Whernside. The valley 
opened, and we were upon a tract of moss and ling. This 
was Batty Moss a spot famous in the annals of the Settle 
and Carlisle railway. There was the viaduct and t mbankment 
which tested so severely the resources of the engineers, and 
which is a lasting monument of their science and perseverance. 
On our way through the navvy town, whose wooden walls and 
felt-tarred roofs we had often noticed from the line, we had a 
chat with a blacksmith who told us that a fair number of 



72 

railway employes are still left at Batty Green. The houses, 
he said, were comfortable, and the situation healthy, but 
it was lonely, and '-hard to leave," and there was no 
place of worship now, and no school for the children nearer 
tnan Chapel-le-Dale. 

KINGSDALE. 

The westerly of the two valleys which meet at Ingleton is 
K.ingsdale, which is threaded by the river Doe. This is a 
desolate valley enclosed between the mountains of Graygarth 
and Breadagarth. 

You may explore this dale either from Ingleton, or from the 
upper part of Chapel-le-dale ; in which latter case you should 
visit Gatekirk Cave on the way, and proceed westward across 
the moors, and so in three miles strike the upper part of 
Kingsdale. 

Thornton village -or rather the church and inn, are only a 
mile from Ingleton. The Force is some distance eastwards. 
There are two small falls and a large one, "over a high wall 
of limestone, lying horizontally on the vertical slate strata, out 
of fissures of which are growing the ash, the elm, the yew, 
the hazel, the holly, and the thorn. The stream, ere it takes 
its final leap, drops in murmuring tones from step to step in 
its rocky bed above, and then, with spray and roar, dashes on 
the projecting slate to gain a more tranquil course in the deep 
fosse below." The rocks on the left rise to a height of 
90 feet. Access to a rocky seat behind the falls may be 
gained by following a path which crosses a tiny stream to the 
left of the fall. 

If the tourist be young and nimble he may follow the river 
Greta upwards from Ingleton to the falls, and he will be 
rewarded with some beautiful bits of romantic river scenery. 
He must not, however, fancy he has reached Tnornton P'orce 
when he comes to the fir>t waterfalls. After an inspection of 
these he had better climb to the high bank on the left, and 
keeping to the footpath, in about half a mile the glorious sight 
of Thornton Force, --by some considered the finest waterfall 
in the district will fill him with wonder and delight. 

A fine pile of rocks above the falls, named Ravenwray, rise 
50 or 60 feet on each side of the river; they have sonic; 
resemblance to a lofty bridge with its arches washed away. 

Four and a half miles north of Ingleton, is Yordas Cave, so 
named after a traditional giant, whose chamber and oven are 
pointed out. There are two chambers : the first 90 yards long 



73 

by more than 20 high ; the second circular, and tapering- 50 
feet to its pointed roof. In the second apartment is a cascade. 
In wet weather this cave is flooded, and traces of these 
occasional deluges are very evident. 

Yordas Cave abounds in stalactites and stalagmites, many 
of most curious forms. As is usually the case, these singular 
productions of nature have been named after the objects they 
are supposed to resemble. To view Yordas Cave, an appoint- 
ment must be made with Mrs. Whittingdale, of Westhouse, 
Bentham, who furnishes a guide. 

An exploration of the rocky bed of the river Greta, com- 
mencing at the old slate quarries on the north-east side of the 
Storrs, near Ingleton, will well repay the tourist for his trouble, 
as here may be seen some of the wildest sights of this romantic 
district. For an account of this expedition, and the many other 
curious caves and rocks in this neighbourhood, we would 
refer our readers to Mr. Carr's capital little book, "Rambles 
about Ingleton/' which may be purchased in the village. 

Whernside should be ascended from the east or south east, 
as it is precipitous and difficult on the western side towards 
Dentdale. The summit commands views which are fine and 
extensive, but on the whole inferior to those from Ingleborough. 
There are three tarns near the summit of the mountain. 




Wtatkercate. 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE LOWER RIBBLESDALE. 



f~~~HE scenery in south-west Craven, that is, so much of the 
valley of the Ribble below Long Preston, as is in the 
county of Yorkshire, is very different from the rest of 
the district. Instead of mountains, scars, and torrents, 
we have here a pretty river-course and valley, with bordering 
pastures and fertile lands, adorned by several gentlemen's 
seats surrounded by extensive parks. The scenery is no 
longer wild and romantic ; but it is very pleasing, and there 
are sites and mansions of much antiquarian and historical 
interest. 

The Skipton and Colne railway will not be found of much 
use in exploring this country. The traveller from Lancashire 
will do well to enter Craven by Clitheroe, and take Sawley, 
Bolton and Gisburne, on his way to Skipton. But we will 
presume the tourist to be at Skipton, and to start for a long 
clay's excursion to end at Settle. In this case, he should hire 
a trap and be driven as far as Gisburne, and walk the rest of 
the way. Better still, to give two days to the excursion and 
sleep at Gisburne. 

The first place on thi road is Broughton, near which is 
Broughton Hall, which has been for four centuries the home 
of the Tempests one of the oldest families in Craven. The 
church, like that at Kirkby Malham, has niches for statues on 
the west sides of the columns. 

East and West Marton are next passed. Marton Hall was 
the residence of the ancient family of the Hebers. Gledstone 
Hall stands on high ground and commands fine views. 

Between Marton and Gisburne the tourist may take a road 
to the left and visit Bracewell and Barnoldswick. At Brace- 
well are ruins of two halls, the older one of stone, the more 



75 

modern one a brick building of the time of Henry VIII. This 
was the ancient home of the elder branch of the family of 
Tempest. 

Barnoldswick is chiefly noticeable as having been the first 
site occupied by the Cistercian monks from Fountains, who 
removed to Kirkstall. Henry de Lacy began to build a 
monastery here in 1 147 ; but the ravages of the Scottish 
marauders, and the unkindly climate, seem to have disgusted 
the monks, for, after six years only, they forsook the place for 
the more secure and fertile site in the valley of the Aire. 

Gisburne (Inns : Ribblesdale Arms, New Inn] is a neat little 
town on the east bank of the Ribble, about twelve miles from 
Skipton. It has a well-frequented rattle market. The church 
has some stained glass, and some monuments to the first 
and second Lords Ribblesdale, and to Sir John Asshtton. 
Gisburne Park, at the confluence of the Ribble and Stockbeck, 
is famous for having, until lately, grazed a herd of wild cattle, 
which were probably descendents of those that ranged the 
forests of North Lancashire and the West Riding. They 
were of pure white colour, except the tip of the nose, the ears, 
and the feet, and were without horns. They gradually 
diminished in number, and the last survivors were killed off 
in 1859. The hall contains some good pictures. There is 
also a curious old drinking horn, <i a buffalo horn nearly 20 
inches long, and containing about two quarts ; it is supported 
on three silver feet resembling those of a man in armour. 
Round the middle is a filleting inscribed, 'Qui PUGNAT CONTRA 
TRES PERDI-.T DUOS,' a seasonable though rather inconsistent 
warning to those who are invited to drink of it." i Whiiaker). 
" Who tackles this three-legged horn will lose the use of the 
two legs he stands on,' ? likely enough, considering the 
capacity of the vessel and the frailty of man ! 

In the Park, on the high bank of the Ribble, are the 
remains of a small square fort, called Castle Hough, and near 
it an ancient barrow. 

Gisburne has been for several centuries the home of the 
family of Lister, by whose head and representative, Lord 
Ribblesdale, the place is still possessed. 

Between Gisburne and Bolton the banks of the Ribble are 
very beautiful. Part of their beauty is owing to the abundance 
of timber, of which very much was planted by the first Lord 
Ribblesdale. 



76 

At a bend in the river is Denham Wheel, where the water 
whirls round with some velocity. 

Three and a half miles from Gisburne, and about the same 
distance from Clitheroe in Lancashire, are the ruins of Sawley t 
or Salley Abbey. The remains are scanty ; and many of the 
sculptured stones, once forming- part of the abbey, may be 
seen built into the houses of the village, into the walls of the 
mill at Gisburne, and elsewhere ; for the ruins seem to have 
been used as a common public quarry. They may be 
recognised by the armorial bearings of the great families of 
the district, Percys, Tempests, Lacys, Hamertons, Ac. 

The monastery was founded by William de Percy, in 1 147, 
and was colonized from Newminster, an off-shoot of Fountains. 
The Cistercian brotherhood seem to have been given to 
complaining', and apparently not without reason, both of 
damages sustained by the incursions of the Scots, and of the 
ungenial climate in which their lot was cast. They were also 
given to quarrelling with the monks of the neighbouring 
Abbey of Whalley in Lancashire. The last abbot of Sawley, 
William de Trafford, took part in the " Pilgrimage of Grace," 
and was hanged at Lancaster for that crime ; as was his 
brother abbot of Whalley, two days after, at his own place. 
Upon the suppression of the foundation, Sawley was granted 
to Sir Arthur Darcy ; it is now the property of Earl de Grey. 

Recent excavations have brought to light the whole ground 
plan of the monastic buildings, which previously were very 
imperfectly traceable. The dimensions of the abbey church 
are very unusual. The length of the church is 185 feet, of 
which the nave is only 40 feet, while the choir occupies 116 
feet. The transepts measure from end to end 1 25 feet. The 
transept has three eastern chapels in each wing. 

There have been discovered some interesting fragments of 
tessellated pavement, and several monumental slabs. Here 
were buried Sir Robert de Clyderhow, Parson of Wigan, and 
Sir William de Rimington, Prior of Sawley and, in 1372, 
Chancellor of the University of Oxford. 

Two miles from Sawley, and higher up the Ribble, is the 
very pleasant village of Bolton-by-Bowland, so called to 
distinguish it from the other Boltons in the county. The 
village has a green, and on it is a stone cross. Bolton church 
is interesting chiefly for the monuments it contains, to the 
Pudsays and their descendants, the Dawsons and Littledales. 
One monument is believed to be that of Sir Ralph Pudsay : 



77 

he is represented in relief with his three wives and twenty-five 
children ! There is a handsome octagon font of grey marble, 
with armorial bearings of Pudsays and allied families. 

Bolton Park is undulating and well timbered ; and the hall 
is superbly situated. This is deemed the most ancient 
mansion in Craven ; the banqueting hall dates from the time 
of Edward III. With Bolton Hall are associated memories of 
the unfortunate Sixth Henry, who was sheltered here by the 
devoted Lancastrian, Sir Ralph Pudsay, after the final defeat 
of his party at Hexham. Here, and at Whalley Abbey, 
Bracewell, and Waddington Hall, the crownless king was 
concealed for a year : he was betrayed and apprehended at 
the last named house, whence he was taken to the Tower. 
Until lately, some interesting relics of Henry's visit remained 
at Bolton,- -a pair of boots, a pair of gloves, and a spoon, all 
of which were used by him during his stay here. When the 
property changed hands, these things were removed. A 
spring" in the garden is called King Henry's Well; it is said 
to have been used by the fugitive as a bath. 

Near the hall is a fine scar or cliff, overlooking' the Ribble, 
which commands a romantically beautiful view. This is 
known as Rainsber Scar, or Pudsay's Leap. The latter name 
it acquired, according to tradition, from a remarkable incident 
in the history of the family of the Pudsays. Those who wish 
to believe the legend had better not visit the spot! This, 
however, is the story : 

It is said that, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, a Pudsay of 
Bolton, having found silver in a field at Rimington. infringed 
the royal prerogative and coined shillings. 

' Oh, then he made, and thought no ill, 
The Pudsay shillings his debts to pay, 
Still at the Mint, by Bolton Mill, 
The dross of his works is seen to-day." 

For this offence, "brave Pudsay, he was doomed to dee." 
Pressed by the soldiers, he flung himself on his horse's back, 
and galloped straight to Rainsber Scaur. 

" Now for a leap, quoth brave Pudsay ! 
If of death I must meet the shock, 

Since it may no other be ; 
Better a leap from my own good rock, 

Than from a ladder at York, quoth he ! 
Into his steed he drove the spur, 
Fearfully he did snort and neigh ; 
Yet, though at first he was hard to stir, 
Over the Scaur leaped Wanton Grey ! " 



The culprit rode hard, until he came into the presence of 
the Queen, his god-mother, who was upon a ship in the 
Thames. The interview and its result must be related in the 
racy vernacular: 

" An a fell upoo his knees, an a sed, ' Pardon, Pardon ! ' 

An shu sed, ' Wat ivvt-r has ta bin abeout, Poodsaa ? ' 

An a sed, ' Pardon ! Pardon ! ' 

An thir wir a deal spak for him, and sed a wir a reel 
gentlemen, an it didn't look loike at a sud do eouet wrang. 

An shu sed, ' Wt-el, then, eouet, Coozn Poodsaa, but 
moordir.' 

\n a sed it wir nobbut coinin. 

An shu sed, ' Waugh ! ' Bui she teld him at a moodn't 
mak ony moar a thir Poodsaa Miillings. 

An a didn't." 

In the woods, half a mile above the Scar, is a cave of 
considerable proportions. 

The tourist who wishes t<> explore the uttermost south- 
western corner of Craven may continue his journey, by 
Waddington Hall and Bashall, to Mitton, where the Hodder 
joins the Ribble ; and may visit Browsholme Hall, an old 
Henry VII. house, in the valley of the Hodder. In Mitton 
church is a beautiful group of sepulchral statues and monu- 
ments of the Sherbume family. 

The forest of Rowland or Bolland occupies the hilly region 
on the west of the river Hodder. Th village of Slaidburr. is 
on its eastern edge, in the valley. 

From Gisburne or Bolton the tourist may proceed to Settle, 
either by .the valley of the Ribble, or by a somewhat more 
direct road to the east. In the former case he will pass 
Paythorn, where is a bridge o\ er the river, Nappa, where are 
some islands in the centre of the stream, and Halton, near 
which is Halton Place, a house occupying- a commanding 
position ; and so by Long Preston to Settle. The other route 
is by Forest Becks, Wigglesworth, and Rathmell. 




79 



CHAPTER X. 





THE SETTLK AND CARLISLE RAILWAY. 



all modes of travelling on wheels, there is one pre- 
eminent in luxurious comfort. Need we say that we 
refer to a journey in a Pullman Car on a Midland 
express ? Availing ourselves of this latest product of 
refined civilization, we took our places in the palace car which 
is attached to the Scotch express, on a bright and breezy day 
at the end of July. We were bound for the Craven country, 
and for the wild moorland, mountainous region which has just 
been opened up to travellers and tourists by the new line from 
Settle to Carlisle. Seated on crimson velvet-piled arm chairs, 
which, being fixed upon a pivot, admit of a semi-revolution, 
and surrounded by maps, guides, and time-tables, we prepared 
to enjoy the varied scenery through which we were to be 
driven by a powerful engine at a high speed, and yet with 
the utmost possible ease and comfort. As a conductor had 
said at the outset of the journey to a gentleman at St. Pancras, 
who was debating with himself whether he should travel to 
Scotland in the Pullman, "You save your seven shillings in 
wear and tear; at the end of the journey, instead of feeling 
cramped, and worn and weary, if not half shaken to pieces, 
you will feel as if you had been resting in your own drawing 
room." The gentleman took the advice, and seemed pleased 
with the bargain. Certainly it is no small advantage to have 
what may be called a series of French windows on both sides 
of the carriage, not only admitting abundance of light, but 
enabling you to see the country on either hand as well as the 
rapid pace permits. 

Punctually at the hour we were at Normanton, where half- 
an-hour is allowed to dine. We have always eschewed 
railway refreshment rooms, and needed some persuasion to 



8o 

induce us to give the dinner a trial. However, we can testify 
that the arrangements are wonderfully different from those of 
any other such place we have entered, that is, in this country. 
The dining- room was only temporary, but was very comfort- 
able. No sooner are you seated than the soup is before you, 
and the fish is ready before you are, and is followed by entree 
and joint, and these by sweets and cheese. Neat handed 
Phyllis sees that no time is lost in changing- plates. Your 
bottle of Burgundy or hock stands before you, with the price 
ticket hung round its neck, and if you give the word, the cork 
is drawn instanter. You have your clear half-hour for the 
meal, and we venture to say pay your three shillings and 
sixpence with a better grace than you ever displayed at the 
refreshment counter at Mugby Junction. Returning to the 
car, and retiring to a cosy smoking-room to enjoy a post- 
prandial cigar, we resumed our interest in the route. 

Leaving Leeds on our right for the Leeds passengers had 
changed carriages at Normanton, that they might not be 
delayed by our dinner, and that we might not be delayed by 
entering Leeds station \ve dashed past the romantic ruins of 
Kirkstall, and soon found ourselves in the seclusion of verdant 
Airedale. Farewell, for some weeks let us hope, to the 
chimneys and the smoke of thronged and busy cities ! Away 
to the clearer atmosphere, the brighter skies, the keener air 
of mountains. Away past the smiling cornfields, and the 
bright green meadows where the last hay-cocks wait to be 
carried to the stacks ; away, past the meek, meditative kine, 
the startled colt, the flustered sheep. Away, between the 
broad grassy slopes and hill sides, streaked by the grey stone 
walls of Yorkshire, where the ash trees are ruffled by the west 
wind ; past the rivulets hurrying down the rocky bed, and 
gleaming in the summer sun ; past the dingle clad with 
bracken, where the proud foxglove rears its stately head. 
Away, towards the mossy moors, where the rivers have their 
rise, to the mountain peaks that lord it over the undulating 
landscapes of the north ! 

At Skipton we had to leave our express and join a stopping 
train, for our friend, the Scotchman was not to pause between 
Skipton and Carlisle. 

But let us before recounting our experiences, and recording 
our observations, give the reader a general idea of the 
country to be traversed, and some notion of the magnitude 
and difficulty of the undertaking which the Midland Company 



has so successfully accomplished. The Pennine Chain is the 
great mountain range which divides the North of England 
longitudinally into two unequal parts. It extends, from the 
Scottish border southwards into Derbyshire. In north-west 
Yorkshire and in Westmoreland this Pennine Chain rears its 
loftiest summits. Ingleborough rises to a height of 2373 feet, 
Pennegent to 2231 feet feet, and Whernside to 2414 feet. 
And these are only the best known of a multitude of stupendous 
fells and pikes, which render this district, -with the adjoining 
lake country, the most mountainous in England. As the local 
rhymes run : 

" Pendle, Pennegent, and Ingleborough, 

You'll find no higher hills if you march all England thorough." 

or according to another version : 

"Ingleborough, Pendle Hill, and Pennegent, 
Are the highest hills between Scotland and Trent." 

These lines embody a popular error; for Micklefell is 
nearly 2600 feet high. 

Now the reader will remember that, until lately, there have 
been two routes to Scotland, the east and west coast routes, by 
Newcastle and Berwick, and by Lancaster and Carlisle 
respectively. It was natural enough that the Midland Com- 
pany, having secured a road to Lancaster and Morcambe by 
the Airedale valley and Ribblesdale, and having taktn 
possession of north-western Yorkshire, should turn a longing 
eye northwards, and set its heart upon establishing communi- 
cations with North Britain, and gaining a share ot the through 
Scotch traffic, said to be worth two millions a year. Whoever 
wishes to read the several chapters of this book of modern 
railway history, should refer to the laborious, interesting, and 
handsomely got up volume of Mr. Williams, "The Midland 
Railway, its rise and progress.'' It was at length resolved 
that a direct line north, commencing at Settle should be 
constructed, at a cost exceeding two millions sterling. The 
result is the Midland route, as distinguished from those 
mentioned above, and intermediate in its course, although 
nearer the west coast than the east. 

It was one thing to determine upon the work, and another 
thing to do it. The obstacles were tremendous, but engineer- 
ing, like love, "will find out a way." But how was the route 
fixed ? The country being, for upwards of 20 miles, one mass 
of mountain and moor, how was it to be traversed by an iron 



82 

road ? The will be better understood by the help of an 
ordnance map. But without this aid we can enable the reader 
to understand how the thing 1 was done. The engineers had 
recourse to nature, and found that she had been doing their 
work for them for thousands of years beforehand, as if in 
preparation for what was to come, that the task might, when 
in due time undertaken, be an easier one for the hands of 
man. Natural forces had been cutting hollow channels 
amongst the hills, and deepening and widening rifts into 
valleys, and intersecting the stupendous masses with the 
winding waterways. Although the difficulties remaining were 
enormous on the whole probably such as railway engineers 
have nowhere else, throughout the length and breadth of the 
country, been called to encounter still these valleys were, so 
to speak, the fulcrum which enabled the lever of mechanical 
science to be brou^it to bear. Southwards, Ribblesdale 
offered an inlet in.u che very heart of the district. The 
Kibble, rising on the south-western slopes of Cam Fell, and 
flowing between Whrrnsidj and Ingleborough on the west, 
and Pennegent on the east ; and lower down, between Stack- 
house and Moughton on th-c- west, and Langcliffe and Stainfoith 
on the east, seemed to invite a road of iron to keep it company 
and track its course. Northwards, the valley of the Eden, as 
lovely as that of the Ribble is wildly romantic, furnished an 
accessible pathway towards Carlisle. Indeed, the chief 
difficulties of the road might be considered as surmounted 
when once the course of the Eden was reached. Between 
these two valleys lay the most formidable difficulties and 
obstacles. Availing themselves, however, of two great, but 
minor valleys, Dentdale and Garsdale, and tunnelling beneath 
some elevated moors, the engineers were able to vanquish 
every hindrance, and to establish a connection between 
Ribblesdale and the Eden valley, and thus between Settle 
and Carlisle. 

The reader will now see what it was that brought us to 
Settle ; we were attracted by some of the wildest country in 
all England, pierced by a railway which is admitted to be a 
triumph of engineering skill and perseverance. 

At Settle we put up for the night at the Golden Lion, and 
next mcrning, after an early breakfast, prepared to make a 
general survey of the new line. There are three stations 
bearing the name of Settle ; that on the old line to Clapham 
and Lancaster, the junction station where the lines diverge, 



83 

and the new station on the new line. It was to this last 
named that we proceeded. We were favoured with the 
company of gentlemen who were familiar with every mile of 
the road, and who had watched its progress during" the whole 
six years occupied in its construction. 

All the stations on the line are remarkably neat and 
commodious ; the station master's houses are like village 
manses, and the cottages for the porters are models of their 
kind. We could not but admire the pretty station at Settle. 
Phis and three neighbouring stations are built of Bradford 
stone, which, with dressings of the same, were brought here 
ready dressed, and the station buildings were accordingly 
easily constructed. The station masters' houses on this line, 
with their gables and high roofs, are models of domestic 
architecture ; of their occupants we may say (though in some 
cases this holds good rather of the dwellings than of the 
localities), "the lines have fallen to them in pleasant places.'' 
The bright-hued flowers bloom in the neat gardens and in 
jars of porcelain in the windows. Within, judging by the 
glimpses we enjoyed, these dwellings are equally attractive. 
Signs of taste and of education abound ; one cannot but feel 
that railways are giving employment to a class of men whose 
intelligence, abilities, and general character, are of the highest 
value to the public. 

Our train appeared, and we took our seats, and were soon 
puffing away up Ribblesdale. Leaving the open pastures of 
Settle we found ourselves ascending- a narrow valley, which 
we tracked, sometimes by a cutting through perpendicular 
strata of rock, sometimes by a handsome bridge over the 
rocky bed of the Ribble, sometimes by an embankment 
affording a view of green pastures, with their grazing sheep, 
and here and there a whitewashed cottage ; but never, by any 
chance, traversing a oit of level gtound. Indeed, it was 
drolly said, when the line was m process of construction, that 
between Settle and Carlisle not enough level ground could be 
discovered to build a house upon ! It is, in truth, a wild, bare, 
and rugged country ; and before the line was made, must have 
been one of the dreariest districts in all England. One cannot 
but feel that we live in innovating days, when drawn in a 
luxurious carriage at a speed of forty miles through desolations 
guarded by mountain barriers and peaty moors, and tenanted 
by the sheep of the wilderness. There is a striking contrast 
visible from the line in two bridges spanning the river close 



8 4 

by. An ancient narrow bridge, mossy with age, has been 
superseded by one constructed to carry the road traffic of this 
solitude over both railway and river; and they stand side by 
side, works of the olden and modern times. Pennegent, with 
its whale-like outlines, raises its colossal mass on our right 
as we approach Horton, whose square towered church stands 
among a knot of grey and whitewashed houses. Passing 
through a cutting made in the boulder-clay, we come to 
Selside. 

A few facts will be mentioned as we proceed in illustration 
of the engineering difficulties which were encountered and 
overcome in the construction of this part of the Settle and 
Carlisle railroad. They were communicated to us by one of 
the engineers employed throughout the whole period of six 
years and a half occupied in the works. 

The cold and elevated situation of the district may be 
understood when it is known that the engineers proceeded 
northwards from Settle thirty-two miles before they came to a 
ploughed field, which was near Bull Ghyl, near Kirkby 
Stephen. Even in the southern part of the Eden valley there 
is a great preponderance of grass land, and much less ploughed 
land than formerly. The tenant of Wharton Hall mentioned 
to us that of the 600 acres and upwards he farmed, a very 
small portion was under the plough, only enough for home 
use. A hundred and thirty acres were meadow, and the rest 
pasture. 

The ground itself in which the navvies had to work often 
presented serious difficulties. The boulder-clay is of very 
unequal consistency, and Mr. Williams mentioned that, in 
some instances, the labourer would strike his pick-axe with 
force into what appeared to be a soft clay, and would 
encounter a hard rock just below the surface ; and that an 
experience like this would so annoy and disgust the not too 
sensitive navvy, that he would lay down his tools at once and 
leave the work. An engineer on the line remarked to us that 
the softer material often occasioned mor<- trouble than the 
hard. Clay, when acted upon by rain, became soft mud, and 
in tunnelling, especially, was continually coming down and 
filling up the passage already made. 

Near to Batty Green we enter a somewhat remarkable 
cutting. When travelling through it before it was finished, 
we noticed that the banks had slipped down nearly on to the 
permanent way, or the ballast. The remark was then made 



85 

to the engineer, "You will find it necessary to have these 
banks cleared out." He told us that not only had the soil 
slipped, but the whole walls of the cutting had slipped down 
and crushed under the permanent way, so as to lift up the 
whole of the road. "We shall have," he said, "to take out 
the whole road sleepers, rails, and all, to deepen the 
cutting, and to relay the road." This, of course, was 
thoroughly and efficiently done, before the line was opened. 

Leaving grand old Ingleborough on our left, and passing 
Ribblehead on our right, where the Ribble takes its rise on 
the slopes of Cam Fell, we come to Batty Green. Here has 
existed, for several years past, a town of the most extraordinary 
description. Some of the most difficult work upon the Settle 
and Carlisle line lies in this neighbourhood. And here, 
accordingly, out in this wild moorland wilderness, was fixed 
the habitation of the navvies whose strong hands were to do 
the great work. Some two thousand of these brawny armed 
sons of toil were located at Batty Green ; and we passed the 
temporary town of wooden felt-covered huts which was erected 
for their accommodation. The work which these men had to 
do was of no ordinary kind. "Here," says Mr. Williams, 
" five great railway works follow one another in succession- - 
the viaduct, the embankment, the cutting, the tunnel, and then 
another viaduct." Crossing a vast peaty bog by the Batty 
Moss Viaduct the longest on the line and 100 feet in height 
laid securely upon the most soft and apparently impossible 
foundation, and leaving the great moss of Whernside on our 
left, we approach Blea Moor tunnel. Our readers may have 
noticed, that when the presentation of his portrait to Mr. 
Allport, the manager of the Midland Railway, was made a 
short time ago at Derby, allusion was made to the circumstance 
that, at Mr. Allport's suggestion, the "distance" of the picture 
consisted of a view of Blea Moor. In fact, this was looked 
upon as the "crux" of the undertaking; and the vanquishing 
of this obstacle may justly be regarded as one of the triumphs 
of railway enterprise and engineering skill. The moor is 
1250 feet above the level of the sea, and the tunnel is carried 
through at a distance of some 500 feet below the summit. 

Near Blea Moor tunnel is the "summit level" of the 
line, being 1150 feet above the sea; yet this is reached by 
gradients never exceding i in 100. 

We emerged into Dentdale, near the source of the little 
river Dee, which, after tracking the beautiful dale of which 



Dent is the capital, falls into the Rother at Sedbergh. 
Passing- over the romantic dingle by the Dent Head viaduct, 
we enjoyed a charming prospect towards the west, down the 
lovely vale of tne Dee. Far below us the beck pursued its 
rapid course, hurrying in places over a black marble bed. 
As we gazed upon the smiling verdure of this fascinating vale 
abounding in homesteads nestling among the meadows, and 
flanked by noble hills, we could not but form purposes of 
exploration. 

At Arten Ghyll viaduct the ground was discovered to be so 
insecure that it was necessary to go down 50 feet to get 
foundations. A shaft was made by digging down from six to 
ten feet; then the shaft was timbered round with strong 
timbers. Progress having thus been made and satisfactorily 
ensured, the shaft was carried a few feet farther, until the 
required depth was obtained. All the time that this operation 
was proceeding, and until a firm foundation was reached it 
was necessary to continue pumping out the water as it rose in 
the shaft. 

At Rise Hill tunnel we are in another of the critical 
engineering points of this interesting line. Here, as we were 
told by the resident engineer, on account of the horizontal 
strata of blue limestone which constituted the roof, it was 
found necessary to place wrought iron ribs across the tunnel. 
at distances of six feet apart. These ribs were made to 
spring from the side walls of the tunnel, and so to form an 
arch, which supports it. They are fastened together with 
tie rods. In this manner an iron framework has been fixed in 
this tunnel for the space of 2dO yards. 

On emerging from this tunnel, we found ourselves in 
Garsdale, which is upon our route, the transition valley 
between Dentdale and the valley of the Eden. The prodigious 
works we had passed could scarcely be unnoticed by the most 
unobservant traveller; yet it requires some acquaintance with 
the processes of railway construction to appreciate them as 
they deserve. Above the very tunnel we had just left behind 
there had been built, we were informed, another village of 
huts, at an elevation of 1300 feet above the sea level, in which 
for several years 350 inhabitants had made their mountain 
homes. From here there was a tramway down a steep 
incline to the road in Garsdale, 600 yards in length, up which 
all the railway material for this portion of the line had to be 
drawn by a rope worked by steam power." 



87 

We soon reached a spot which is one of the landmarks of 
the route. This is the Moorcock Inn a name suggestive of 
the nature of the locality. We noticed that, in some places, 
the telegraph wires were twisted into a single cable, to avoid 
injury to the grouse, which it was feared, might in their flight 
strike themselves against the wires. And we were told that, 
in other places, the owners of the moors, for the same reason, 
required that the telegraph wires should be buried below the 
surface of the soil. Grouse and moor-fowl seem to be the 
most important inhabitants of the district. At the Moorcock 
is the meeting of several roads that to Hawes in Wensley- 
dale ; that to Sedbergh, by Garsdale ; and that to Kirkby 
Stephen. Passing over the Dandry Mire Viaduct, near to 
which is the junction station for Hawes, which is reached by 
a branch line, we were soon at Ais Gill Moor, the summit of 
thr railway, at 1 167 feet above the sea-level. Yet, though a 
height so unusual is reached, the gradients on the Settle and 
Carlisle line never exceed one in one hundred. And now we 
are in Westmoreland, in the valley of the Eden, with Wild 
Boar Fell upon our left and Mallerstang Edge (pronounced 
Mawstan) upon our right. Passing Deep Gill, "where the 
union of a bridge and culvert has been ingeniously designed 
to meet the requirements of the site, which is composed of a 
stream pouring a cascade off a high shelf of rock," we soon 
look down upon the winding course of the romantic Eden. 
This celebrated stream well justifies the quaint conceit of the 
old poet, who sang of it thus : 

' ' Fetched from Paradise, the honour came 
Rightfully borne ; for Nature gives thee flowers 
That have no rivals amongst British bowers ; 

And thy bold rocks are worthy of their fame." 

Before reaching Kirkby Stephen Station the railway train 
passes through Birkett Tunnel. Immediately to the south of 
this are the evidences of what is known to geologists as the 
Pennine Fault. Crossing the line at this point, the Fault may 
be traced in a south-westerly direction towards and across 
Dent Valley. We were informed by one of the engineers 
that in making Birkett Tunnel they found the work compara- 
tively easy, because the displaced strata are. in that place, in 
a vertical position. Whereas horizontal strata present a flat 
roof across the top of the tunnel which occasions great 
engineering difficulties when the strata are vertical no great 

G 



difficulty is experienced in working the tunnel to the exact 
section required the form of the section being- that of the 
pointed arch. Very curious and interesting- is the insight 
which the railway cutting in this place affords into the almost 
perpendicular arrangement of intermingled geological strata. 
The traveller should not fail to observe it as he passes. 

A heavy "slip" took place in the construction of Birkett 
Tunnel. The ground came down for the space of 60 feet in 
length. This part of the tunnel had to be lined throughout, 
and filled with wooden sleepers put across, side by side. 

A hundred yards or so before entering the Fault, the 
traveller by the railway train should look eastward over the 
valley of the Eden. At this point three buildings are seen in 
a line ; the middle one, a square tower of dark stone, standing 
boldly up on a green knoll, is Pendragon Castle. As the 
traveller approaches the Kirkby Stephen station, he may 
observe a tuft of trees in the valley ; behind these nestle the 
ruins of Wharton Hall. On the hills above the heights of 
Mallerstang may be descried a lofty stone. This is one of 
nine erect pillars, known as the " Nine Stands." 

By the time we reached the station of Kirkby Stephen, the 
day had brightened, and sunshine and breeze contributed to 
the enjoyment of our excursion. There is no doubt that the 
district is a very rainy one. The rain gauge showed that 
during 1872 ninety-two inches of rain fell at Dent Head. The 
extreme rainfall of the region interfered very materially with 
the progress of the contractors' works upon the line, both by 
its influence upon the soil, ctnd by its limiting the number of 
working days to an unusual extent. The same phenomenon 
accounts, however, for the singular greenness of these moor- 
lands, and especially of the valleys which they enclose. Speaking 
of weather, we may remark that there were many days during 
the construction of the Settle and Carlisle railway, when the 
winds were so violent, that in certain exposed positions upon 
the line, it was utterly impossible for the workmen to proceed 
with their task. On the embankments and bridges they 
would have been literally blown away. We were thankful for 
a very different day for our explorations by the banks of the 
Eden. 

Smardale Viaduct is a great work which occupied four and 
a half years in the construction. It is over Scandal Beck and 
the South Durham Railway, and is 130 feet in height from 
stream to rail. It contains more than 60,000 tons of stone. 



89 

Other viaducts, tunnels, cutting's, and embankments followed, 
too numerous to mention ; a list of them will be found at the 
end of this chaper. 

After leaving Kirkby Stephen behind us, we found the 
scenery much less wild. While in many parts of England the 
grass had been well-nigh scorched up, here we observed it 
bright with verdure. There were a few green crops ; the 
hedgerows were a pleasing variety after so many stone walls 
as we had remarked in the more elevated country. Passing 
Crosby Garrett and Ormside, our eyes were refreshed by the 
ripening cornfields, whilst here and there the red sandstone 
rocks offered a picturesque diversity in the landscape. After 
a journey of 42 miles from Settle, we reached Appleby, the 
quiet little capital of Westmoreland. One of the railway 
officials characterized the pretty, but by no means go-a-head 
little town, in a few words, thus : " Appleby, sir, has been 
asleep for a few hundred years, but, now the railway has 
come here, it is beginning to rub its eyes, and may perhaps 
soon wake up." According to the historian of Westmoreland 
everything belonging to Appleby the town, the corporation, 
the assizes, the market has existed from time immemorial. 
And we are disposed to receive this historian's opinion with 
profound respect because of his wholesome scepticism regard- 
ing Julius Caesar's Tower, as it is called, a portion of Appleby 
Castle. Says Mr. Sayers of this famous keep which, by the 
bye, is clearly seen from the railway " Popular tradition says 
that it was raised by Julius Caesar ; however, we think its 
erection might with equal propriety be attributed to Napoleon 
Buonaparte! " 

Passing Battle Barrow bank, where was another navvy-town 
of huts, we reached Long Marton, the station of which has, 
instead of a wall, a fence of iron rails, with wire-work filling 
it in. Asking the reason of this, we were told that this 
arrangement was for the purpose of affording a picturesque 
view of and from the station, and that the net-work was to 
prevent children straying or falling through ! We admit that 
the reader can scarcely be expected to believe this explanation : 
fancy a railway with aesthetic susceptibilities ! 

And now, on our left, upon the western horizon we discerned 
the romantic forms of the Lake Mountains about Keswick. 
Passing Newbiggin and the pretty Crowdundle Beck we 
approached the confluence of the Eamont with the Eden ; the 
former river comes down from Ullswater. On the west might 



90 

be observed, among 1 noble woods, the roofs of Eden Hall, the 
home of the Musgroves. An old manuscript says of this 
famous place: "Walks as fine as Chelsea fields, the fair 
Eden gliding- like the Thames along! " Our readers will be 
familiar with the tradition concerning the " Luck of Edenhall." 
" A servant of the family going to fetch water from the well, 
saw the fairies dancing round this vessel. He snatched it 
from them, and they entreated him to restore it ; but on his 
refusal, they uttered the ominous words 

' Whene'er this cup shall break or fall, 
Farewell the luck of Edenhall. " 

The "luck" is a curious old vessel of green-coloured glass, 
ornamented with foliage, and enamelled in different colours. 

The scenery about Longwathby is extemely romantic. Far 
away on the east rises the grand mountain mass known as 
Cross Fell. Westward you look over the winding Eden, 
where groups of quiet cattle stand cooling their feet in the 
sparkling shallows, towards the woods which form a pic- 
turesque horizon to the landscape. Near Little Salkeld, on 
the summit of a hill, will be found the Druidical remains, 
known as Long Meg and her Daughters, "that family 
forlorn," as Wordsworth has finely termed them. 

And now we come to Lazonby the goal of our present 
railway journey. Prettily is the station situated ; among fir 
trees, fruit orchards, and sunny farmsteads, with the church 
and churchyard on a pleasant knoll, looking over the charm- 
ing vale below. 

Near Lazonby is the seat of Colonel Maclane, who is said 
to have predicted the construction of a railway between Settle 
and Carlisle 30 years before that work was undertaken ! 

At Eden Brow the " tipping " went on for two years. As 
the work proceeded, the material tipped merely slipped down, 
carrying trees with it in its course, and depositing them in the 
adjoining country. 

There is very romantic scenery bordering the line all the 
way between Lazonby and Armathwaite Stations ; and, though 
not so fine, yet pretty scenery between Armathwaite and Cote 
Hill. The river Eden here flows through a deep dingle, clad 
on both sides in places, with umbrageous trees from the bank 
of the river to the summits of the hills. This country must be 
visited, either from Carlisle on the north, or from the plain 
village inn of Kirkoswald on the south. It may be questioned 



9* 

whether more beautiful scenery is to be found in all England 
than in this valley of the Eden. 

Carlisle is a busy station, both for passenger and for goods 
traffic. Seven railway companies run their lines into this one 
station. 




NOTE TO CHAPTER X. 

The following list of the Viaducts and Tunnels which have been constructed 
on the new railway, will give the reader some notion of the magnitude and 
difficulty of the engineering work which has been accomplished. The dimen- 
sions and other particulars are annexed according to the official statements. 

LIST OF VIADUCTS. 



No. 


Name of Viaduct. 


No. of 
Arches. 


Length in ft. 


Height in 
feet at 
deepest part 


Span of 
Arches in ft. 


I 


Settle, Kirkgate 


4 


130 


22 


30 


2 


Settle, Giggleswick Road 


6 


269 


35 


5 of 30 and 












I of 40 


3 


Batty Moss 


24 


1328 


100 


45 


4 


Dent Head 


10 


596 


IOO 


45 


5 


Arten Gill 


II 


645 


100 


45 


6 


Dandry Mire 


12 


700 


5 


45 


7 


Quarry 


4 


270 


54 


45 


8 


Ais Gill 


4 


2?O 


65 


45 


9 


Smardale 


12 


700 


130 


45 


10 


Crosby Garrett 


6 


270 


53 


38 


ii 


High Grisbrow 


6 


370 


70 


45 


12 


River Eden 


10 


590 


84 


45 


13 


Troutbeck 


5 


319 


55 


45 


14 


Crowdundle Beck 


4 


270 


5 


45 


IS 


Briggle Beck 


7 


420 


5 


45 


16 


River Eden 


7 


421 


55 


45 


17 


Armathwaite 


9 


530 


80 


45 


IS 


Dry Beck 


6 


370 


80 


45 


19 


High Stand Gill 


4 


270 


60 


45 



92 

LIST OF TUNNELS. 



No. 


Name of Tunnel. 


Length in 
Yards. 


Depth in 
feet. 


Strata. 


I 


Taitlands 


1 2O 


40 


Blue Limestone 


2 


Blea Moor 


2640 


500 


Gritstone, Limestone & Shale 


3 


Rise Hill 


1180 


180 


Blue Limestone 


4 


Moor Cock 


IOO 


64 


Boulder Clay 


5 


Quarry 


70 


5 


Boulder Clay 


6 


Birkett 


428 


IOO 


Limestone 


7 


Crosby Garrett 


180 


66 


Gritstone, Limestone & Flint 


8 


Helm 


500 


no 


Red Marl 


9 


Culgaith 


650 


no 


Red Marl 


10 


Lazonby 


IOO 


no 


Red Sandstone 


ii 


Baron Woods 


200 


90 


Red Sandstone 


12 


Baron Woods 


250 


80 


Red Sandstone 


'3 


Armathwaite 


320 


84 


Red Sandstone 




93 



CHAPTER XI. 



UPPER RlBBLESDALE, DENT HEAD, AND HAWES. 



IN this chapter we will briefly describe four excursions from 
so many successive stations upon the Settle and Carlisle 
Railway. 

I. From Norton Station. At Horton-in-Ribblesdale are 
two inns, either of which will afford comfortable quarters for 
the pedestrian. The New Inn is by the bridge, and the Lion 
Inn is by the church. The church has arches and columns of 
the Norman period, and a font equally ancient ; the tower 
dates from Henry VII. or VIII. The grammar-school is well 
endowed; the present building replaces one which stood in 
the churchyard. 

'From Horton the summit of Pennegent (or Penyghent) may 
most easily be climbed. The ascent of the mountain, which is 
a mass of limestone capped with millstone grit, and 2273 feet 
high, is very easy. The direct path is up the Greenrake, a 
broad grassy track between two projecting rocks. "The 
early morning,'' says Mr. Howson, "the noon, and the evening 
have each their peculiar advantages for the ascent of such 
mountains as Pennegent and Ingleborough. Soon after sun- 
rise, when the clouds are dispersing and beginning to assume 
a higher altitude, their slow and solemn motion, the haze in 
the valleys, the illumined summit of the hills, like pleasant 
islands in these lakes of mists, the grand pictorial effects of 
light and shade, and the purity and freshness of the air, may 
well tempt the tourist to select such an hour. *In the evening, 
too, the pageantry of a sunset may have its peculiar charms ; 
but, as the chief object in ascending a mountain is to obtain 
an extensive view of the surrounding country, the noon, unless 
there has been a succession of dry and hot days, will be found 
to be the most eligible time for such a purpose." .- 



'94 

Following the course of the stream which joins the Ribble 
at Horton, the visitor will come to Doukgill Scar, an amphi- 
theatre of rock, with beetling- brow, threatening- to fall upon 
the spectator below. The rock is over-grown with moss and 
ferns, and is crowned with a plantation of larch. 

Not far from the cart-track to the summit of Penneg-ent are 
some of those singular caverns, locally known as "pots," 
which are so characteristic of the mountain limestone. The 
most remarkable of these are Thirl Pot and Thund Pot, 
which are both well worth a visit. Each is a terrific chasm, 
and the receptacle of a mountain torrent. They are somewhat 
dangerous to approach. Thund Pot has been plumbed to a 
depth of 200 feet. 

Distances from Horton : To Clapham, 6 miles ; Ingleton, 
by Clapham, 10 miles; Ingleton, by Selside, 8 miles; Litton, 
7 miles ; Settle, 6 miles. 

2. From Ribblehead. From hence is to be made one of the 
most marvellous of all the Ribblesdale excursions. No visitor 
should lose the opportunity of seeing Helln Pot, which is to be 
found from the hamlet of Selside, by following first a green 
lane, then a brook, and then looking for a solitary bush-like 
tree as a landmark. This Helln Pot is the most awful thing in 
all England. It is a terrific chasm 180 feet in length, and 60 
in width, but 200 deep and more ! It is walled round by a high 
wall, for the protection of cattle, and indeed of all living things 
unwinged; but it may be crossed by a wooden bridge, placed 
there by recent explorers. Trees partially overshadow the 
yawning abyss ; as you look down, not without a shudder, you 
remark ledges of rock clothed with moss and grass, and below, 
at one side, a waterfall, which plunges into the depth. Several 
attempts have been made to explore this chasm ; the last, the 
only thoroughly successful one, in 1870, by an adventurous 
party of thirteen, including three ladies ! Mr. Birkbeck was 
the conductor, and Mr. Boyd Dawkins, who tells the story in 
his "Cave Hunting," was one of the explorers. Provided 
with suitable apparatus, and aided by a party of navvies, the 
enthusiasts were rewarded for their enterprise by very in- 
teresting observations and discoveries. Some of them reached 
a depth of 300 feet from the surface having descended in the 
darkness, through the courses of several waterfalls. They 
were five hours about the business. 

There are two other caves above, by which the sides of 
Helln Pot may be reached. Looking- into them we were 



95 

struck by the flatness of the roofs, the honeycombed limestone 
walls, the perpetual murmur of invisible water. To explore 
them, a visitor must be suitably provided with lights and 
ladders, and be prepared for a wetting". 

From Ribbblehead Station, proceeding westwards, the 
tourist may visit Chapel-le-dale, or climb Ingleborough. But 
this excursion has been described in Chapter VIII. Turning 
eastwards, however, you will, in a mile and a half, reach the 
inn at Gearstones, a roomy and comfortable hostelry in a wild, 
secluded spot upon the high road from Hawes to Ingleton. 

After luncheon in the inn at Gearstones, you may set off to 
see Thorns Gill, a deep cleft in the limestone, with steep cliffs 
overhung with ash and rowan, through which flows the 
stream, Gale Beck, which is the chief confluent of the Ribble 
though not that coming from Ribblehead, as it is called, 
close by Gearstones. The channel is remarkably tortuous, 
and is diversified, here with a deep, dark pool, and there with 
the small pot holes peculiar to the district. These pot-holes 
are bored by stones, which are whirled round and round by 
by the eddying of the streams. The beck is crossed by a 
plank-bridge, and lower down by an arch of stone. 

Adjoining Thorns Gill is a cave, called Catknot Hole, which 
has been robbed of the stalactites that were formerly its 
glory. 

From Gearstones or Horton the tourist should not fail to 
visit Lynn Gill, a wild and romantic mountain ravine, through 
which flows the Cam Beck, another confluent of the Ribble. 
On the road between Lynn Gill and Horton, near a farmhouse 
called Old Ing, is Brow Gill, a cavern with an imposing 
entrance, and near 1 New Houses, one mile from Horton, 
are two chasms worth looking at, Jackdaw Hole and 
Sel Gill. 

From Gearstones also may be made the ascent of Blea 
Moor, whence is a wide and glorious prospect; or the old, 
disused high road may be followed over Cam Fell to Hawes ; 
or the road to Newby Head, where is a good country inn, 
and whence you can descend into Wensleydale. 

Distances from Gearstones : To Chapel-le-dale, 3 miles ; to 
Dent, 9 miles; to Hawes, 9 miles; to Sedbergh, 16 miles; to 
Linn Gill Bridge, 2 miles ; to Horton, 6 miles. 

3. From Dent Head Station, the tourist should explore the 
lovely valley of the Dent. The little river Dee runs through 
this valley, and rushes over a bed paved as it were with black 



96 

marble. The little town of Dent (Inns : George and Drag-on ; 
.the Sun) is eight miles down the valley. Here was born Prof. 
Sedgwick, the distinguished geologist. This is the scene of 
Southey's story in "The Doctor," "the terrible knitters of Dent." 
The excursion may be continued to Sedbergh (Inn : King's 
Arms) near which are How Gill Fells and the Calf, Black Foss, 
a tremendous chasm and waterfall, and Cautley spout, a 
succession of cascades, measuring altogether 860 feet. At 
Sedbergh is a grammar-school (first grade classical) with a 
very wealthy foundation. 

5. From Hawes Junction Station. The tourist may follow 
the Garsdale valley westwards to Sedbergh, or he may turn 
eastward down the valley of the Ure, the uppermost portion 
of the celebrated Wensleydale ; or, he may take the branch 
line to Hawes (Inn : The White Hart), the highest town in 
this dale. This town is the centre for many delightful 
excursions. "Seven Dales, Mossdale, Yoredale proper, Cotter- 
dale, and Fossdale (north), and Widdale, Galedale, and 
Seamerdale (south), open out within three miles of Hawes, 
radiating from it north, south, and west." {Murray}. Hardraw 
Force is a very beautiful cascade in the neighbourhood of 
Hawes. 




Brow Gill. 



97 



CHAPTER XII. 



THE VALLEY OF THE EDEN. 




~E will ask the reader to accompany us in three 
excursions we made in the lovely valley of the Eden, 

i i- including much of the most beautiful scenery and 
most interesting objects to be visited in the district. 
The three stations upon the line from which we started were 
Kirkby Stephen, Appleby, and Lazonby. 

Within an easy walk from Kirkby Stephen station are three 
interesting remains of antiquity. Accompanied by one of the 
railway engineers, to whom a residence of several years and 
his professional duties had rendered the whole country familiar, 
we set out upon a little antiquarian excursion. Crossing the 
fields, by the courteous permission of the tenant farmer, Mr. 
Cleasby. we proceeded to inspect the remains of Wharton 
Hall. When we say "remains," it must be understood that, 
although the former glory of the place has departed, there is 
still, in good repair, enough to constitute a very commodious 
farm-house. 

The Wharton family held this place from the reign of 
Edward I. down to the year 1728. when the estate was sold to 
Robert Lowther, Esq., ancestor of the Earls of Lonsdale. The 
last Duke of Wharton is remembered in history and celebrated 
in poetry for his brilliant abilities, his chequered career, his 
dissolute character, and his expatriation and early death. This 
nobleman was the subject of Pope's lines, commencing 

' ' Wharton, the scorn and wonder of our days, 
Whose ruling passion was the lust of praise. " 

Entering the paddock or enclosure, within which stands 
Wharton Hall, our attention was directed to the curious 
water-worn stone posts of the gate. These were singularly 



98 

indented specimens of the "breccia" or "brockram" stone, 
which is found abundantly in the neighbourhood of Kirkby 
Stephen, and is commonly used for buildings of various kinds, 
for walls, &c. There are two kinds of conglomerate; the 
pudding stone, the imbedded pebbles of which are round, and 
the brockram, which abounds in pebbles of an angular form. 
The latter, so common here, is a calcareous, magnesian 
formation. 

Through a grove of sycamores, elms, and ash trees, we 
approached the hall a stone building, with some traces of 
former grandeur in its mullioned windows, its enormous 
chimney-places, and the coat of arms engraven over the 
gateway, bearing the date, 1559. Passing through this gate- 
way under the tower, we entered the spacious quadrangle. 
The buildings fronting us and on our left we saw at once to 
be inhabited, and found them to be occupied by the household 
of the farmer, and by his farm servants. An immense 
fire-place, 12 feet across, fronted us, and looked picturesque 
enough, with its verdant mantling of ivy. This was the hearth 
where blazed of old, upon the dog irons, the logs of the 
dining or banqueting hall fire. On the right of this apartment 
is the ancient kitchen, which has been roofed at a period 
comparatively recent ; it has two large fire-places, one of 
them half filled in with masonry. This room has been used 
as a smithy. Beneath it is a vaulted cellar, 30 feet by 15, 
which is considered to have been the larder, doubtless well 
replenished in the olden time with many a fat buck from the 
forest of Mallerstang, and many a salmon from the silvery 
waters of the Eden. 

The chapel of the hall is on the left of the quadrangle, and 
is now used as a store-room. It is the outer side of this 
portion of the edifice that the visitor sees in approaching by 
way of the plantation. The hall of the present dwelling is 
reached by a flight of steps from the outside ; on the right of 
the hall is the lord's solar, or private sitting room. There is 
an old oak staircase, and in some of the rooms are massive 
oak beams, now covered with whitewash. Some 45 years 
ago, several of the apartments were well fitted up as a 
shooting box, for the use of the late Earl of Lonsdale. 

We had a chat with the farmer, who has held this farm and 
resided in the hall for many years. He told us that almost 
the whole of the land was in grass, as pasture or meadow, 
and that out of 633 acres in all, there were no fewer than 130 



99 

acres of meadow to be mown ! And this is quite characteristic 
of the valley of the Eden. The nature of the country between 
Settle and Kirkby Stephen may be understood from a fact 
communicated to us by one of the engineers upon the line. 
As they proceeded in their survey and their work northwards 
from Settle, they traversed thirty-two miles before they came 
to a single ploughed field, and that, the first they met with, was 
a field of potatoes near Bull Ghyll, and close to Kirkby 
Stephen ! Even in the upper Edendale there is little arable 
land, the greater part being pasture, which is found more 
suitable to the climate and more profitable to the farmer. 
There is less land under the plough than there was even a 
few years ago. Our farmer friend told us that in haytime a 
labourer on his land earns 2 a week, but that the custom of 
the country is to hire the farm servants for the period of six 
months. The labourers, who are mostly on his farm single 
men, are boarded and lodged in the house, and receive 18 
as the half-year's wages. 

A footpath across the meadows, and near the Eden, led us 
to another relic of former times. 

Lammerside Castle appears to have no annals ; it was 
formerly known as the Dolorous Tower. The remains stand 
in the middle of a field between Wharton Hall and Pendragon 
Castle. They consist of a small square keep and some traces 
of foundations and walls in the adjoining field. Small apart- 
ments, which may have been guard rooms, with vaulted roofs, 
are now used apparently as shelter for cows. The stone is 
the common stone of the country. Out of crevices in the walls 
spring a few wild shrubs and flowers, and scraps of lichen 
stain the walls with a brighter colour. A few remains of 
arches, and of window lights may be observed. Still the 
ruins are lacking in pirturesqueness, owing to their solitary 
situation in the meadow, and the evident removal of all 
adjuncts which might have interfered with the cultivation of 
the land. One only thing seems certain, that these and 
similar ruins are vivid memorials of a bygone state of society, 
when all this district was again and again the scene of savage 
border warfare. 

Coutinuing our ascent of the valley of the Eden, less than 
half-an-hour's walking brought us to a spot of historical, and 
even romantic, interest, and to ruins of some beauty though of 
no great extent. On a green knoll higher up the valley, and 
near the little hamlet of Outhgill, rise the picturesque ruins of 



100 

Pendragon Castle. At this point the valley runs between the 
sombre ridge on the east, known as Mallerstang Edge, with 
a steep escarpment near its summit, and the massive pile of 
mountain appropriately termed Wild Boar Fell on the west. 
The Eden pursues its pleasant course among- the greenest of 
meadows and pastures, here overshadowed by trees, and 
there murmuring over scattered rocks amidst the open dale. 
As we approached the Castle, we observed the moat, which 
either was never completed, or more probably, became filled 
up in places through neglect and decay, and we were re- 
minded of the old couplet, which runs : 

" Let Uther Pendragon do what he can, 
Eden will run where Eden ran. " 

For the tradition is, that Uther endeavoured to perfect the 
defences of his fortress by leading the waters of the Eden 
around it, but that all his efforts were ineffectual. This Uther, 
chroniclers tell us, was surnamed Pendragon, on account of 
having been likened to a dragon's head by Merlin, the 
great prophet. He was an eminent warrior, and was father 
of the famous King Arthur. 

The reader will not need to be told that the present ruins 
date from a period many centuries subsequent to the tradition- 
ary events alluded to. There are occasional allusions to 
Pendragon in authentic history, from the fourteenth century 
downwards. Many and various were its fortunes. It was 
burnt by the Scots in 1340, and having been again re-built, 
was again laid in ruins in 1541 ; it was rebuilt by the Countess 
of Pembroke in 1660, and was again all but demolished in 
1685 by the Earl of Thanet. This Castle has been held by 
various families, by Morvilles, Vetriponts, Cliffords, Earls of 
Pembroke, and Earls of Thanet. " Here Sir Hugh Morville, 
of a Norman house, lord of Westmoreland, one of the knights 
implicated in the murder of a Beckett, held his brief but lordly 
tenure, and his sword was long preserved in Kirkoswald 
Castle as a memento of the assasination." The Countess of 
Pembroke, mentioned above as one of the restorers of this 
edifice, was the masculine woman whose indignant and defiant 
reply to a minister of the crown, who attempted to force an 
objectionable candidate upon one of her boroughs, has so 
often been quoted: "I have been bullied by an usurper; I 
have been neglected by a court ; but I will not be dictated to 
by a subject. Your man shall not stand." 



101 

The site of so famous a stronghold is now occupied only by 
the remains of a square keep a tangle within of mountain 
ash and wild rose briars, of nettles and long" grass, mingling 
among the disjointed scattered masonry. Hare-bells, blue 
and white, woodruff, and tansy, grow luxuriantly among the 
ruins, and the ruefern flourishes amid the crevices of the 
crumbling walls. Here and there may be observed sandstone 
coigns of a re-entrant shape, in one block of stone a 
peculiarity of old masonry, not likely to be revived in days 
when castles, if built, are built by contract. 

Pendragon Castle can be seen from the railway just on the 
south of Birkett tunnel : it stands on a knoll rising out of the 
valley below. From the line just north of the same tunnel, a 
glimpse is obtained of Lammerside Castle. 

After so long a morning, spent in inspecting triumphs of 
engineering skill and monuments of antiquity, we were not 
unwilling to direct our steps to the hospitable town of Kirkby 
Stephen. The highroad was the nearest, and therefore the 
most welcome. As we skirted the lovely Eden, we could 
sympathise with Old Drayton's lines : 

"O, my bright, lovely brook, whose name doth bear the sound 
Of God's first garden plot, th' imparadised ground, 
\Yherein he placed man, from whence by sin he fell : 
O, little, blessed brook, how doth my bosom swell 
With love I bear to thee ; the day cannot suffice 
For Mallerstang to gaze upon thy beauteous eyes. " 

Passing through the ancient village of Nateby, where, as 
in other dale villages, our hearts were cheered by beholding 
the rising walls of a spacious board school, we soon reached 
Stenkreth. At >tenkreth or Stankthred is a noble bridge, 
which spans the Eden in a most romantic point of its course. 
Looking below, the visitor sees the river eddying and whirling 
at a depth of some 70 feet below; the circular holes or "pots" 
are singular, and deserve observation ; they are from one foot 
to six feet in diameter. The largest is called Coopkarnel 
hole. Near this spot, it is said, was formerly a narrow 
fissure, through which the river ran; sc narrow that it could 
be spanned. The story goes that a drunken mason declared 
that he would be the last to span it, and that he smote the 
projecting rock with all his might, and broke it, and so 
fulfilled his foolish word. 

A few minutes brought us to the King's Arms, where we 
found ourselves ready for a substantial luncheon, and in 



102 

the pleasant garden of which we lounged, enjoying the distant 
views of the Westmoreland Fells, remarking, to our surprise, 
the railway train steaming up the distant hill side on its way 
to Darlington. 

Kirkby Stephen, the second town of Westmoreland, is 
situated in the rich green valley of the Eden, about a mile and 
a half from the railway station, and about 300 feet below the 
level of the line. It is a neat town, with a broad, clean street. 
The houses, some of which are very good, are built of the 
breccia of the district. There are halls for different societies, 
and sundry places of worship. 

The name Kirkby is indicative of Danish origin, and 
signifies "church town." Stephen is the name of the patron 
saint. The spacious and handsome church, the lofty tower of 
which is conspicuous from every quarter, has recently been 
very effectively restored. It contains several monuments of 
interest. We noted especially one, consisting of three full- 
length alabaster figures, viz., Thomas, the first Lord Wharton, 
in the middle, and on the right side Eleanor, his first wife, 
and on the left, his second wife, Anne. On the edge of the 
monument is a Latin epitaph, which has thus been translated 
into English rhyme : 

"I, Thomas Wharton, here do lie, 

With my two wives beside me ; 
Ellen the first, and Anne the next, 

In Hymen's bonds who tied me. 
O, earth ! resume my flesh and bones, 

Which back to thee are given ; 
And then, O God, receive our souls 

To live with Thee in heaven. " 

A stiff walk of half an hour brought us to the railway 
station. 

Between Settle and Carlisle the only towns of importance 
are K-irkby Stephen and Appleby. Now, Appleby is a county 
town, and a famous town, with a castle, and a corporation, 
and a history ! Appleby is not like a town that has just risen 
a nouveau riche, like Shoddy town in the West Riding, or 
Cast-iron ville in Cleveland. No ! Appleby was famous 
when these were undreamt of. Though we won't insist upon 
Julius Caesar having built the tower which bears his name, 
is it not a fact, that Henry I. gave Appleby a charter of 
privileges equal to York, viz., " Freedom from toll, stallage, 
lastage, and pontage, throughout England, except in the 
City of London ? " The charter of York was granted in the 



103 

morning-, and that of Appleby in the afternoon. A town that 
was enfranchised by Norman Kings, that wrangled with the 
Cliffords, treated with the Plantagenets, was burned by the 
marauding- Scots, that defied the Lord Protector Cromwell, 
that kindled bonfires and drank the King's health at the 
Restoration, that boasts for its motto "NEC FERRO, NEC IGNI," 
and has on the reverse of the common seal the figure of St. 
Lawrence on the gridiron, that was the scene of the famous 
electoral contects between Brougham and the Lowthers, such 
a town, to say nothing of its market, its fairs, and its assizes, 
is a town that is not to be sneezed at, and we visited it in a 
due, not to say a subdued, spirit of reverential enquiry. 

Appleby, in its general appearance, certainly retains much 
of its primitive character. It is approached from the railway 
station by descending- a steep hill and crossing- the river Eden 
by a handsome bridge, the views from which, both up and 
down stream, are very pleasing. A short, narrow street leads 
from the bridge to the main street of the town, the Borough 
gate at right angles to the bridge street. This wide 
thoroughfare has the cloisters and the church at the bottom, 
and the castle at the top. There is a pillar (hardly to be 
termed a town cross), with a fountain, at the lower end of the 
town ; and a similar pillar, with a vane, at the upper end, 
upon which latter is the inscription 

" RETAIN YOUR LOYALTY ; 
PRESERVE YOUR RIGHTS." 

Very sound, judicious, and safe advice, certainly; but, "the 
bearing of the remark lies in its application," and what that 
may be we could not tell. Perhaps one line was contributed 
by each of the two political parties ! The plain old motehouse, 
-standing like a middle row, certainly does not improve the 
appearance of the street ; the public shambles, a little higher 
up, are a great disfigurement. On the left hand the visitor 
will observe a row of almshouses ; and on the right some old 
whitewashed and thatched tenements, quite of the olden times. 
The Tufton Arms is the newest, and most spacious and 
handsome edifice in Appleby. Here we put up, and found 
ourselves in very comfortable quarters. 

In the morning, having ordered breakfast, we thoug-ht we 
might improve the time by paying a visit to the church ; but 
we must confess that it was not to matins that we went, the 
modern Anglican customs having apparently not as yet 
penetrated to Appleby. The church stands in a convenient 



104 

position at the bottom of the Borough gate, and is approached 
through cloisters and the church yard. According to the 
sextoness, the original edifice was erected in 1113, but, it was 
almost re-built in 1653 of course, by the inevitable Lady 
Anne Clifford. In fact, during our pilgrimage to Craven and 
the Settle and Carlisle district, we seem to have never been 
out of the presence of Lady Anne. Here, in Appleby, Lady 
Anne has been building almshouses, restoring the church, 
repairing the castle, and, here in Appleby, Lady Anne is 
BURIED at last! 

A handsome and dignified church it is. The pointed arches 
are fine, and the highly decorated flat ceiling of 1655 has 
doubtless its admirers. But what shall we say of the pews 
sacred to the accommodation of "the quality? " There is the 
castle pew in its splendour well, we were so courteously 
admitted to see the Castle, that we are willing to think the 
inmates of this pew deserve their comfort. But there is the 
Corporation pew ! Well^ the Mayor and Corporation are so 
ancient that nobody knows when they began to be so nothing 
can possibly be too good for them. No ! our municipal 
institutions deserve to be treated with something more than 
respect. So, after all, though we were a little disposed to 
rebel, in a radical spirit, against the dignities of Appleby 
Church, it appears that "whatever is, is right!" 

Bnt the glory of Appleby Church is not its handsome pews, 
or its handsome ceiling, or its old bibles, with the links still 
left with which they were wont to be chained to the desk. 
No ! something more glorious than all these is here. Here is 
a marble monument and effigy to Lady Margaret a Russell 
by birth, and a daughter of an Earl of Bedford and a 
Clifford by marriage, to wit, the Countess of an Earl of 
Cumberland and, above, all this, mother of Lady Anne ! 
But even this monument, imposing as it is, is not the flower 
and crown, the ne plus ultra of Appleby Church. 
HERE is THE TOMB OF LADY ANNE ! 

A black marble monument records her grandeur, in whose 
veins flowed the blood of the Cliffords and the Russells, who 
married successively the Earl of Dorset and the Earl of 
Pembroke. Here, in splendid array, are spread before the 
eyes of posterity the arms of all the Cliffords. So the old 
countess was but mortal ! In Skipton Castle she first saw the 
light, and no she-wolf ever fought more fiercely for her young 
than Lady Anne for her barony of Skipton. Many a castle 



did she rebuild: Skipton, Pendragon, and Appleby remain 
to prove her "the restorer of waste places to dwell in." 
"Crosses and contradictions" had she with two husbands; 
and, however uncharitable the supposition may be, we cannot 
but think her husbands must have had "crosses and contra- 
dictions" with her! She had been "neglected by a court, 
and bullied by an usurper," but the old lioness was " not to 
be dictated to by a subject!" we trow not, indeed! However, 
though she braved it out, saw the work of her hands, and 
"lay," now in this castle, and now in that, of her own building 
and her own property, she succumbed at last at the ripe age 
of 87. And the historian tells of her. that "her house was a 
school for the young-, a retreat for the aged, an asylum for the 
persecuted, a college for the learned, and a pattern for all." 
Nor must we forget that she erected the monument we have 
all seen in Westminster Abbey to the memory of our great 
poet, Edmund Spenser; and we have the testimony of Bishop 
Rainbow to h; r worth, and not to he^- character only, but to 
her tongue, for he says, in his funeral sermon for her ladyship 
quoting Dr. Donne, (and we can well believe it), that "sh 
could talk well on all subjects, from predestination to slea 
silk." And here she lies, in her own country, and among the 
scenes she knew, and the sacred shrines and princely homes 
she edified or re-edified while she was yet "in the flesh." 

Appleby Castle is at present the residence of Admiral 
Elliott, who acts as steward to Sir Henry Tufton, whose 
estates in Yorkshire and Westmoreland are extensive. Wish- 
ing to see the old keep, we ventured, although it was only 
nine in the morning, as our time was short, to apply for 
admission. At the top of the street is the entrance to the 
castle grounds ; indeed, the street leads nowhere else, and 
there is nothing to do but to follow the example of the Duke 
of York:- 

"The Duke of York and all his men 
Went up the hill and down again." 

Applying at the modern stone house where the Admiral 
lives, we were readily permitted to see the old tower known 
as Caesar's tower, for what reason no one on earth seems to 
know. It is near the house, just across the lawn, in a north- 
westerly direction. It is a square, battlemented keep, with 
four turrets at the angles, each turret surmounted by a vane. 
The walls are partially mantled with ivy, in the very trimmest 



io6 

possible condition. The apartments are utterly neglected, 
some being" empty, and some used for storing" timber. 

Climbing" to the top of one of the turrets, we enjoyed a 
splendid prospect. The castle is perfectly embowered in 
plantations of ashes, walnuts, horse-chestnuts, and (what are 
not common in this district) elm trees. The foliage altogether 
hides the little town below, but beyond the walls, and the 
moat, and the plantations, the country stretches in every 
direction, and each prospect has some feature of interest 
or of charm. Looking to the west and north-west, we 
recognized the mountains of the lake district ; eastward rises 
the massive range of Cross Fell ; to the south the horizon is 
bounded by the mountains of north-west Yorkshire, whilst on 
the north the view is more limited by the rising ground in the 
vicinity. The Midland Railway may be traced in its progress 
from Settle to Carlisle, and is in view for many miles of its 
course. 

Having seen the church and the castle, we conceived that 
we had "done" Appleby, and we left it, feeling that its 
interest lies more in the past chronicles it boasts than in any 
existing splendour such as is wont to adorn the county towns 
of our country. But what can be expected from a town which 
has never gone a- head, but has been incontinently burned 
down by those restless and marauding Scots ? Such a fate 
was enough, surely, to discourage, in some slight measure, 
even so gallant and stout-hearted citizens as the good burgesses 
of Appleby. 

A very interesting and enjoyable excursion in the county of 
Cumberland, maybe made from Lazonby,- -including Kirkos- 
wald and the far-famed Nunnery Walks. Descending from 
Lazonby Station into the valley, we crossed the fine bridge 
over the Eden, here of 60 or 70 yards in width, and followed 
the lane towards Kirkoswald. Before reaching the town, we 
turned to the left by a paved path leading through a noble 
avenue of lime trees towards the parish church. This lies at 
the foot of a hill, on the top of which is the campanile tower, 
with three bells. It struck us as odd, though there are 
similar cases elsewhere, that the tower and the church should 
be placed at so great a distance one from the other. The 
church consists of a nave, with aisles, which are of the 
Transition period, from Norman to Early English. There are 
monuments and brasses to various members of the family of 
Featherstonehaugh, who have been settled here since the time 
of James I. 



ID; 

At the west end of the church, below the west window, is a 
well, supplied from a spring which issues from the hill, and 
flows under the church. A chain and iron vessel are provided 
that the traveller may slake his thirst from this most ecclesias- 
tical source. The steps down to the well are within a decayed 
enclosure of wooden paling". 

In the churchyard are many gravestones, with curious 
inscribed memorial brasses let into them, after the custom of 
the country. These seem all to be of the present and the last 
centuries. There are also two ancient gravestones of some 
interest, both with crosses, one with a cross fleuree and 
shears. 

Before entering the town, we visited the ruins of the ancient 
Castle of Kirkoswald, which will be found adjoining a lane 
leading from the high road, a little east of the town. The 
broken, uneven ground tells of the former extent and impor- 
tance of the fortress. Among ashes and sycamores are many 
fragments and some large portions of masonry still remaining. 
The largest mass yet standing is what remains of an ancient 
tower ; it may be sixty feet in height, and has small embrasured 
windows looking without, and large windows apparently of 
apartments which faced the castle yard. We saw a melancholy 
horse emerge from what was once a dungeon, but is now a 
stable or cow-house, fitted up with mangers and troughs. 
We failed to recognise in the animal any signs of breeding 
which might indicate descent from any of the caparisoned and 
high-mettled war steeds which must once have gone forth, 
prancing in their pride, from those castle gates, on errands of 
warfare, or in quest of booty, or to repel a foray from the 
north. 

This castle was originally founded about 1201 by Randolph 
Eugayne ; was greatly improved by Sir Hugh Morville and 
succeeding owners, and especially by the Dacres. 

Kirkoswald is the best point from which to visit the 
celebrated and beautiful grounds of The Nunnery. After 
partaking of an abundant luncheon at the little homely inn, 
the Featherstone Arms, we availed ourselves of the kind 
services of Mr. Milton, who makes his home at the inn, and 
who, having lived as butler with the neighbouring family for 
many years, is well acquainted with the country, and is 
disposed to assist the tourist with his knowledge and guidance. 

It is a pleasant walk across the fields, and by the manor 
house of Staffold, to the nunnery. The original convent was 



io8 

founded by William Rufus. At the dissolution of monasteries 
the property belonging to the convent was granted to the 
family of Graham, from whom it passed into the hands of 
the Aglionbys, who have held it for nearly two centuries. 
The house, which is of red sandstone, was built in 1715. It 
commands a fine view eastward. 

The key of the Walks, which are readily made accessible to 
visitors, may be obtained at the house. We passed under a 
row of^spruce firs, the finest trees of the kind we remember to 
have seen, as well as a stately row of beech trees. The 
Walks border not only the river Eden, but a beck, the 
Croglin, which, at this point pours its tributary flood into the 
river. This part of the romantic scenery of the Nunnery has 
been thus accurately and vigorously described: -"It may, we 
think, be safely asserted that the Croglin, in this last part of 
its course, for the space of a mile, during which it pours along 
a deep ravine, has no equal. It first enters this savage dell 
by a fall of 40 feet, forcing its way through a cleft into a deep 
caldron, scooped out of the rock, in which the water is 
agitated and whirled round in boiling eddies, till it finds an 
escape by a narrow opening in one corner, whence it rushes 
down several leaps, foaming over the large masses that 
hinder its impetuous progress. The rocks are piled upon 
each other to the height of IOO or 2OO feet, projecting their 
bold fronts forward over the river, 'here scorched with 
lightning, there with ivy green,' or grey with aged lichens 
and mosses. On the other side the path is carried round the 
protruding masses of rock on rudely framed galleries support- 
ed by rough timbers, thus affording the best and most striking 
views, because the rocks and woods on Mr. Aglionby's ground, 
which are the grandest, are seen to the best advantage. At 
one time you are on the margin of the water, beneath 
overhanging crags, the brook before you rushing furiously 
over moss-coloured fragments and stones, forming cascades 
of exceeding beauty, whilst the trees, waving in the breeze, 
reveal the shaggy rock that supplies their roots with scanty 
nourishment. At another, you are on the brink of the 
precipice, looking down into a dense mass of wood, out of 
which the twisted branches of the rift oak, stripped of their 
bark, 'toss their giant arms amid the skies,' contrasting with 
the deep green behind, while the water is betrayed by its 
sparkling sheen and softened roar." This language, though 
strong, is not exaggerated. The beauty of the Nunnery 



IO9 

Walks is not exceeded, either by the Torrent Walk at 
Dolgelly, or the Meeting- of the Waters at Lynmouth. 

The following" are the chief points of interest : The waterfall 
plunging down into the wooded glen ; the bower overlooking 
the river a favourite spot for luncheon; a greensward lower 
down, where gipsy parties boil the kettle and prepare tea, 
and where al fresco dances are frequently got up by youthful 
visitors ; the walk over the rocks and beneath the cliffs 
overhanging the river. The Eden is here some sixty yards 
in width, and is a good salmon stream, especially for young 
fish ; opposite is Samson's Chamber, a large cave overlooking 
the river, into which you crawl on hands and knees. Samson's 
chuckie-chuckie stone is not far distant. Just above the 
chamber is the Settle and Carlisle line, the construction ot 
which, at this spot was a work of great difficulty, owing to the 
crumbling and unstable character of the soil. 

Upon our return to Kirkoswald we admired the fertile 
meadows and pastures through which we passed, and were 
told by our guide that the usual rent of land is about 405. or 
455. an acre; but that some exceptionally good meadow land 
in this valley lets at 8 an acre ! We passed through the 
fields of one farmer who grazes 3000 sheep. The aspect of 
the country speaks of plenty and prosperity. 

A good walker may extend this excursion to Armathwaite, 
where is the modernized castle, which was for centuries the 
home of the Skeltons, and the situation of which is very 
romantic, among the rocky wooded heights overlooking the 
course of the Eden. 

If, however, the visitor return to Lazonby station, he should 
endeavour to make a pilgrimage to "Long Meg and her 
Daughters,'' interesting remains of British Druidism, situated 
about half a mile south of the church of Addingham, on a 
very elevated site. 

The remains consist of 67 unhewn upright stones, forming a 
circle 350 feet in diameter. The stones are of different 
formations, and "there is great disparity in their height and 
sizes, for while some of them are ten feet high above the 
ground, and fifteen or sixteen feet in circumference, others are 
not more than two or three feet in height. Many of them are 
now prostrate on the ground." Meg herself stands eighteen 
feet high, and is fifteen feet in girth round her waist, and her 
four angles face the four points of the compass. 



no 



CH A PTER XIII. 
GEOLOGY OF CRAVEN.* 



E district to which the preceding pages profess to be a 
Guide includes the greater part of the Deanery of 
Craven, and a portion of the Archdeaconry of Richmond, 
or, in other words, of nearly the whole of the Wapon- 
take of Staincliffe, and a part of Ewcross; Horton in 
Ribblesdale, Clapham, Ingleton, and Thornton being in the 
latter Wapontake. Birigley, and parts of Addingham and 
Keighley are in Skirack, and a part of Ilkley in Claro ; the 
four latter are included in Craven by Dr. Whitaker, but are 
only incidentally mentioned in this volume. It may here be 
noticed that the derivations of Craven British Craigvan, the 
district of rocks, and Staincliffe Anglo Saxon Ston and Clyff, 
are nearly identical. 

This district has always held a high rank with regard to 
the attractive character of its scenery, and those peculiar 
natural features which invariably accompany the massive 
deposits and dislocations of mountain limestone ; and to the 
Geologist, the Mineralogist, the Antiquarian, and the Botanist, 
as well as to the lover of Landscape, presents a field of no 
ordinary interest. 

As the nature, character, and extent of the various strata 
which compose a district are so intimately connected with 
scenic effects, a sketch, at least, of the Geology becomes a 
necessary part of the Topographer's task a task in the 
present instance rendered comparatively easy by the accurate 
researches and admirable work of Professor Phillips on the 
Geology of "Yorkshire. In the recognised order then the 
Silurian first claims attention. 

This Chapter on the Geology of the district is taken from Howson's Guide to Craven, with 
slight additions and alterations. 



Ill 

SILURIAN. 

The great mass of Silurian which forms Hougill and 
Casterton Fells is bordered on the east by the range of the 
Pennine Fault, as faf south as Kirkby Lonsdale, where the 
Pennine turns suddenly to the E.S.E. and receives the name 
of the Craven Fault. Near Ingleton the Fault splits into two ; 
the northern branch running" by the north end of Clapham 
Tarn, Austwick, Stainforth, and Malham Tarn, whilst the 
southern takes its course by Clapham Village, Austwick (south 
end) Buckhaw Brow and Giggleswick Scars, through Giggles- 
wick and Settle, up Stockdale and on eastwards by the foot 
of Malham Cove through Skirethorn, and crosses the Wharfe 
near Grassington. The Silurian rocks appear north of the 
northern Fault, where the rivers have cut down to them, the 
greatest spread being in the valley of the Ribble, from 
Stainforth to above Horton and westwards to the valley lying 
between Moughton and Norber,- and south of it on the south 
east of Malham Tarn. For miles in length the junction of the 
nearly level surface of the Silurian and the great plateau of 
Lower Scar Limestone which supports Whernside, Ingle- 
borough and Penyghent may be distinctly seen, and the fissures, 
joints, and laminae of the supporting slate, with the horizontal 
beds and vertical joints of the limestone are very striking. In its 
course from Kirkby Lonsdale the Silurian forms a remarkable 
hollow between the limestone hills, reaches a height of 750 
feet, three miles above Ingleton, and attains an elevation 
of 1 166 feet, under the south front of Moughton. In 
Casterton Fells it rises to a height of 1400 feet, and in Hougill 
Fells 2220 feet. In the latter Fells the peculiar scenic effects 
of the Silurian are well displayed ; there it forms high conical 
hills, with steep, smooth, and regular slopes, meeting in 
narrow and angular valleys, and covered with a green coarse 
herbage. Although narrow and depressed between the 
Craven Faults, its appearance beneath the horizontal limestone 
at Moughton, Norber, Ingleton, and more especially at 
Thornton Foss produces singular effects in the landscape. 

The great change of mineral character and structure 
between the slates of Ingleton and Ribblesdale, along the 
same line of stratification, is very remarkable ; and not less 
interesting is the spectacle of their complete overthrow to 
nearly vertical positions, and the subsequent wearing down of 
their surface to a singularly even plane. 



112 

In the blue roofing slates of Ingleton the cleavage planes 
present a constant course to the S.E., dipping slightly to the 
S.W., whilst cross joints run vertically to the N., and oblique 
joints dip to the N.E. Some of the cleavage planes are 
covered with arborescent films, and cubical crystals of iron 
pyrites are commonly met with. 

Besides the dykes in connection with the Whin in Tynedale 
and Teesdale, two interposed igneous rocks only have been 
observed in Yorkshire, and these are at Ingleton ; the most 
distinct being only a few feet wide, and projecting like a wall 
from the left bank of the Greta about one hundred yards 
below the slate quarries. The composition of the stone is 
peculiar; red felspar, occasionally in large masses, hornblende 
and mica, sometimes in broad flakes; it is commonly called 
greenstone, but more properly micaceous syenite. 

The Ribblesdale Slates, which correspond with the " Conis- 
ton Flags" of Professor Sedgwick, are widely expanded, and 
have been worked at many points, and perhaps a finer 
flag-stone is nowhere found. In the quarries under Moughton, 
on Swarth Moor, and at Studfold, the position and structure of 
the rock may be readily, observed. Of the two sets of planes 
which divide the rock into rhomboidal prisms, the one called 
spires is very obvious, and separates the rock into tables of 
great extent and uniform thickness ; the other, more indistinct, 
is called bate, and may be considered to be the laminar 
structure, whilst the spires are the planes of stratification. It 
is quarried in a peculiar manner, with attention not only to 
the structure, but to the situation and dryness, and the joints, 
nodules, limited depth of the tabular separations, &c., make 
the quarrying rather a hazardous speculation. The thickness 
of these flags in Ribblesdale is supposed to be not less than 
two thousand feet. 



MOUNTAIN LIMESTONE. 

Phillips divides this series into two general types by a line 
drawn through Kettlewell to Ryeloaf, and thence westwards 
to Lancaster, and he states his belief that this line divides the 
oceanic from the littoral portion of the great limestone deposit. 
The following table is necessary in order to understand 
the two series and their subdivisions. 



NORTHERN SERIES. 



SOUTHERN SERIES. 



ack 



UPPER GROUP. - , 

( Limestone & Shale 

LOWER GROUP, j Nearly undivided. 



UPPER GROUP, [Limestone. 

(Yoredale Rocks of V . , A r . 
rsL'ir j H Laminated Gnt. 

Phillips) composed ! T . 

Limestone. 

(Shale. 

LOWER GROUP, f Partially divided 
(Scar Limestone), (by shales. 

NORTHERN SERIES. Lower Group. Commencing with the 
widest expanse and greatest thickness ( 1000 feet) of the Lower 
Scar Limestone, it is found to fill Kettlewelldale from Buckden, 
it then turns up Littondale almost to its source, and covering 
Hardflask, forms a general base of Fountains Fell, Scoska Moor, 
and Penyghent, thus uniting Wharfedale with Ribblesdale. 
The southern boundary of this great area passes along a line 
of dislocation from Threshfield to Malham, and, bending to 
the north round Ryeloaf, is continued to Settle. Its lofty 
escarpments then turn along the course of the Ribble as far 
as Stainforth, where the slate is brought up to the surface by 
the northern branch of the Craven Fault. Beyond, it again 
resumes its parallelism to the river, and three miles above 
Horton fills the whole valley. Again to the south and west it 
presents a great undulated floor of bare limestone rocks 
around the slopes of Ingleborough, and borders the valleys at 
Wharfe, Clapham, and Ingleton, with magnificent and con- 
tinuous scars. This vast range, together with the southern 
one which is traced by Giggleswick Scar, Feizor, Austwick, 
Xewby, and Ingleton. marks the double line of dislocation, so 
well known by the name of the Great Craven Fault. 

Throughout this large area the limestone rock is nearly 
undivided, and presents one vast calcareous mass four or five 
hundred feet thick, and this mighty range is but the edge of a 
plateau, which underlies the whole of the elevated region from 
Wharfedale to the valley of the Tyne. With regard to the 
extent of the dislocations caused by the Craven Faults, it was 
thought by Professor Phillips, that the northern drop is about 
three hundred feet, whilst the total depression under Ingle- 
borough is not less than three thousand feet, about Settle one 
thousand, and it diminishes towards Grassington, where 
numerous other dislocations confuse but do not destroy its 
effects. The limestone beds are not usually conspicuous 
along the line of the axis of disturbance ; enough however can 



H4 

be seen to assure us that while the elevated beds rise slightly 
to the Fault, the depressed beds fall steeply to the south ; they 
are no where vertical, and the angle of their inclination 
continually diminishes eastwards. From the point where the 
southern Fault becomes distinct in Giggleswick Scar there is 
a very violent southward dip of the depressed beds ; and at 
Feizor, Kirkby Fell, and Malham Moors the elevated beds 
rise slightly to this Fault. At Giggleswick the lower level 
limestone is opposed to the inclined millstone grit of Ingle- 
borough, indicating a slip of one thousand feet ; and the same 
is the case at Ryeloaf and Brown Hill. 

Malham Tarn is on the line of the great northern slip, 
three hundred feet below the bold escarpment ; the Cove is 
parallel to the southern Fault. The valley from Malham 
downwards is full of dislocations and varying dips, especially 
at Kirkby Malham, the general result being a dip of the 
depressed beds from the great Fault for one mile, and then a 
rise in the same direction, so as to expose a considerable tract 
of the Upper Craven Limestone about Calton, Otterburn, 
Coniston, and Eshton, thus connecting them with the range of 
Limestone, by Flasby, Rylstone, and Burnsall. The hollow 
caused by the southern slip reaches Wharfedale between 
Kilnsey and Threshfield, where it falls into another system of 
dislocations, having had an uninterrupted course from North- 
umberland to Wharfedale, a distance of one hundred and 
thirty miles. 

It is the Lower Scar Limestone chiefly which gives to the 
district of Craven those marked features which must always 
interest the lover of landscape and the geologist. It produces 
the characteristic scenery of Bolland, Wharfedale, Upper 
Airedale, and Ribblesdale. And the Scars along its southern 
edge rearing their barrier-fronts along the pastoral dales, 
form a magnificent base and foreground for the lofty moun- 
tains which rise above them. 

In general, broad surfaces, mighty cliffs, frequent and deep 
clefts, chasms, and caves, constitute the typical character of 
this lower limestone floor. To it Gordale owes all its 
magnificence, whilst other cascades, as Thornton and Scaleber, 
owe much of their distinctive features to the top of the fall 
only being guarded by a durable ledge of limestone, and the 
lower parts filled with wasting argillaceous beds. The caves 
are most frequent where the limestone is thickest, and not 
divided by shales or grits, and so elevated as to permit the 



"5 

water to pass down, or to justify the suspicion that in some 
former condition it may have passed. They mainly owe 
their extent, enlargement, or modification to the eroding- 
influence of spring's and subterraneous streams. The joints 
and bedding planes which so numerously intersect the rock 
no doubt facilitate this excavating process, and those which 
have a flat roof, indicating a bedding plane, are generally 
found to be the most roomy and of the greatest extent. 

Upper Group, or Yoredale Rocks. In the upper part of 
Wensleydale this series has the greatest degree of complexity 
and attains the thickness of one thousand feet, and nearly the 
same particulars of complexity are found in Whernside. In 
Ingleborough this series is composed of about one thonsand 
feet of limestones, plates and laminated grits ; and near the 
top is a crinoidal limestone forming a prominent scar, thirty 
feet thick, called the Main Limestone, covered with alternating 
grits and plates ; and the whole is crowned with a pebbly 
millstone grit. In Penyghent, also, and Fountains Fell, the 
main limestone occurs under a cover of the same grit, 
surmounted by shales and flagstones, with coal. 

Between the Craven Fault and Upper Wharfedale the 
Yoredale series partially covers a large oval space of lower 
limestone, and is much elevated, including Birks, Litton Hill, 
Raisgill Hag, Cam, Cosh Knot, Hardflask. Scoska, &c. 

The variations in the series which compose the Yoredale 
rocks produce corresponding effects in the landscape. In 
general, the limestones always project, argillaceous beds form 
straight, undulated or obscure slopes, and the grit occasionally 
makes rough angular edges ; this latter, indeed, is so mixed 
with plate that it does not often assume the character which it 
does under more favourable circumstances. In Ingleborough 
and Penyghent the main limestone projects into a mural 
precipice, and below it there is a uniform slope of several 
hundred feet. In Bowland. and south of the Craven Fault, the 
series being almost wholly shale, with interlaminated lime- 
stones in its lower part, presents only sloping surfaces below 
the grit summits, and smooth rounded hills in all the large 
region between Ribblesdale and the border of the Yorkshire 
coalfield. Although the lower limestone produces those 
grand escarpments which guard the dales, the facility of 
waste in the Yoredale series has cleared their broad surfaces, 
formed many extensive denudations and insular hills, and is 
the cause of much of the grandeur and peculiarity of the 
district. 



n6 

SOUTHERN SERIES. Lower Limestone. The lower limestone 
occupies a considerable extent of country in the vale of the 
Hodder, and in Bowland. It fills oval spaces in the midst of 
a mountain country whose higher parts are surmounted with 
millstone grit, and the intermediate slopes are formed with 
shales and grits. It is not from the lowness of this part of 
Craven that the limestone comes to day; it is in fact uplifted, 
for the country S. W. of the Craven Fault has its own system 
of disturbances, consisting of anticlinal axes, and whilst the 
northern dislocations are remarkable for sudden and violent 
fracture and partial displacement, the southern consist only of 
steep anticlinal ridges, causing a long system of parallel 
undulations and contortions, and giving to the district its 
most striking features. 

The principal mass of this limestone shows itself in the 
Trough of Bowland, Slaidburn, Whitewell, Downham, Rim- 
ington, and Lothersdale. 

Upper Group. The dark laminated limestone of Craven 
appears as much connected with the shale above as with the 
lower member of the mountain limestone. It may be consid- 
ered as forming a passage into the Yoredale series. 

An excellent section of these beds is seen in the quarry of 
the Leeds and Liverpool Canal near Thornton, where alterna- 
tions of calcareous and argillaceous beds rest upon a thick 
mass of laminated and crinoidal limestone. Similar beds 
occur at Gisburne, Broughton, in the quarries near Skipton 
and in Lothersdale, and in the valley between Skipton and 
Bclton Abbey. North of Skipton is another line of nearly 
parallel elevated limestone, ranging from Flasby. by Craco 
and burnsal, towards Nidderdale, and dipping distinctly 
beneath the grit summits of Rylstone and Flasby Fells. 
Northwards it expands largely up Kettlewelldale and Lang- 
strothdale, whilst in Littondale and at Kilnsey it joins the 
great limestone plateau of Malham Moors. The thickness 
of the limestone exposed between Kettlewell and Great 
Whernside is about nine hundred feet. It is often liable to a 
local change into a crystallized yellowish rock, full of nodules 
and cells of calcareous spar ; in this state it is called by the 
miners "dun lime," and is said to destroy the productiveness 
of the mineral veins. 

The shales, which represent the Yoredale series, occupy a 
large area in the southern part of Craven ; extending east and 
west from Bolton Abbey to Bowland, and north and south from 



Ryeloaf to Pendle. The best exhibitions of this series may be 
seen in the Trough of Rowland, on the west front of Pendle 
in the Hodder near Stonyhurst, in its upper sources above 
Slaidburn, and in various parts of the Ribble between Clitheroe 
and Settle. It covers the limestone ridges of Lothersdale, 
Skipton and Craco, is rich in fossils at Flasby, curiously 
contorted at Bolton Abbey, and is almost universally found 
beneath the pastures in the lower and central parts of Craven. 
Its thickness below Pendle Hill and at Skipton is about four 
thousand feet, but in Bowland probably less. A good 
description of these beds is given in the Geological Survey 
Memoir, " On the Burnley Coalfield, &c." 



MILLSTONE GRIT. 

The millstone grit rests on the Yoredale series ; both consist 
of limestones, sandstones, shales, ironstones, and thin coal 
seams, but while limestones abound in the lower series, 
sandstones predominate in the upper, and the limestones 
become almost obliterated. Their common boundary is thus 
not easy to be determined. In all the Bowland district above 
the limestone masses lies one very thick gritstone group, and 
from the Lancaster side of Bowland it passes by an easy 
gradation to the more varied series of grit on the west of the 
Lune, a series intermediate between those of Ingleborough 
and Bowland. South of the Craven Faults is a narrow band 
of elevated gritstone country, which from Giggleswick and 
fettle eastwards presents a singular rivalry to the limestone 
band between the Faults. Thus, at Giggleswick the grit is 
opposed to the limestone, both one thousand feet ; so Ryeloaf, 
one thousand seven hundred and ninety five feet, opposes the 
limestones of Kirkby Fell, one thousand eight hundred feet ; 
and the grit of Brown Hill, one thousand two hundred and 
fifty eight feet, meets the limestone of Boardley, one thousand 
three hundred and fifty two feet. It crowns most of the hills 
between Whernside in Ingleton Fells and Great and Little 
Whernside in Kettlewelldale, and ranging by Grassington, 
exists in great force in Flasby, Rylstone. and Burnsal Fells, 
appears at the Strid and Bolton Bridge, and on the southern 
ba..k of the Wharfe, from near Harewood to Skipton, forms 
the outcrop of the floor of the Great Yorkshire Coal Field. 



The millstone grit is an important element in the scenery of 
the eastern and western boundary and hig-h summits of 
Craven. Its elevation and structure, and the coldness and 
humidity of the climate favour the growth of heath and sedgy 
grass, which almost extirpate other vegetation, and form a 
surface of dreary moorlands, far less serviceable to the 
agriculturalist than much loftier hills of slate. It is often 
concealed, except in torrents, but sometimes the escarpments 
appear in bold craggy fronts, which from their wasting and 
ruinous appearance, may well rival in interest the famous 
Granite Tors of Devonshire. Rowland Knotts will well 
repay a visit. 



COAL. 

The singular coal field in the low valley of the Greta, 
between Ingleton and Burton, bears a complete analogy to 
the field on the South Tyne. Both are far detached from the 
large tracts to which they appear related ; both range east 
and west, and both lie at the foot of an escarpment of rocks 
much older than themselves, and rest on the same rocks sunk 
by dislocation, in one case, more than two thousand feet. 

The Ingleton bed is not a basin % as would at first sight 
appear, deposited after a dislocation, for the planes of stratifi- 
cation have only a north-eastern dip, which is not the original 
position, but owing to the Faults making depressions to the 
south. It has only one outcrop visible to the south, the 
western is obscured by drifts, and the north-east edge is sunk 
deep, and terminates on the plane of the south Craven Fault. 
On the west and south the subjacent grit comes to the surface, 
and it is seen on the south and south-west that .at this insulated 
spot, two thousand feet below the summit of Ingleborough, 
some of the lower strata of the far distant Lancashire and 
Yorkshire Coalfields lie not only above the millstone grit of 
Penyghent and Ingleborough, but even above rocks usually 
several hundred feet above them in the scale of strata. At 
the Burton end the beds are not cut off by any Fault, but are 
said to thin off to nothing. 

The dip of the coal is northerly ; two workable seams occur, 
the upper and best four feet thick, another, forty yards deeper 
has a thickness of from seven to ten feet. It is remarkable 



that in the deep coal there are two parallel layers of light blue 
pipe-clay, with a pure jet or cannel coal between them. The 
extent of the coalfield to the north of the Greta has never yet 
been fairly tried. Rising from below the Ingleton coalfield in 
the direction of Holland, is a series of millstone grits and 
shales, enclosing two coal seams, which have been worked, 
besides others of less thickness. They have been worked at 
Bentham, Mewith, Tatham, Smear Hall, Clintsfield, &c. 

MINERAL PRODUCTIONS. 

It is evident from the local abundance of mineral veins in 
the neighbourhood of great lines of Fault and their paucity in 
the undisturbed limestones, that they have a near connection 
with systems of dislocation. Accordingly we find that mineral 
veins are frequent in Craven. Productive veins of lead have 
been found in Rowland, at Whitewell and Brennand, Grassing- 
ton, Kettlewell, Arncliffe, Buckden, and Malham. In the 
mountain limestones occur the sulphides of lead, copper, iron, 
and zinc ; the oxide of iron ; and an oxide of zinc, in the 
form of a white powder is found at Malham. At Grassington 
and Kettlewell there are productive ores of lead both in 
the limestone and millstone grit. A green phosphate of lead 
is occasionally found on Grassington Moor. The carbonate 
of zinc, or calamine, has been raised in the compact and 
pseudomorphous forms at Arncliffe, Kettlewell, and Malham, 
in large quantities. The sulphuret of iron or iron pyrites 
occurs plentifully in the slate quarries at Ingleton, and in 
some of the mines. Hydrous peroxide of iron, or brown 
haematite is found among the broken stones and in the soil 
under Giggleswick Scar; and bog iron ore, a variety of 
haematite, but of recent formation, has been found on Blea 
Moor. Ironstone nodules intersected by septa of carbonate 
of lime, called septaria, are found on Rathmell Moor, and 
more especially of great size and beauty in Kettlesbeck, near 
Eldroth, where they have been washed out of the shale beds 
by the flood. Quartz in clear and regular but small crystals, 
is found plentifully in the hills above Settle, and darkly 
coloured with iron, on Giggleswick Scars. Calcareous spar 
is abundant in the mineral veins, and the stalactite forms will 
be found in beautiful variety in most of the numerous caverns, 
but more especially in the Ingleborough Cave, the most 
instructive Cavern, perhaps, in the kingdom. 

i 



I2O 



CHAPTER XIV. 



BOTANY OF CRAVEN. 



r HE plants named in the following list are less common 
plants to be found within a radius of from ten to 
fifteen miles around Settle. A local Flora is to be 
obtained from the publisher of this work. 



RANUNCULACE/E. 

Thalictrum minus. Giggleswick Scar 
Gordale. 

flavum. Frequent 

Ranunculus auricomus. Clapdale 

Trollius europaeus. Malham Cove 

Stainforth Force 

Helleborus viridis. Wharfe 

foetidus. Feizor 

Aquilegia vulgaris. Stainforth 

Actoea spicata. Ingleborough, Mal- 
ham, Penyghent 



NYMPHjEACE/B. 
Nuphar lutea. 



Kibble 



PAPAVERACE^E. 

Papaver dubium. Occasional 

Meconopsis cambrica. Stackhouse 
Corydalis' claviculata. Settle 

Corydalis lutea. Langcliffe 

CRUCIFER./E. 

Thlaspi alpestre Lead Mines, 

on the way to Malham 
Hutchinsia petrsea. Malham Tarn 
Lepidium campestre. Settle 

Cochlearia officinalis. Frequent 

alpina. do. 



Draba incana. Attermire 

muralis. Malham, &c. 

Cardamine amara. Horton, &c. 

impatiens. GiggleswickScar 

Sisymbrium Thalianum 

Arabis hirsuta. Kelcowe 

Barbarea proecox. Stackhouse 

Hesperis matronalis. Settle, Gargrave 

RESEDACE/E. 

Reseda luteola. Giggleswick. 

lutea. do. 

CISTACEjE. 
Helianthemum canum. MalhamCove 

VIOLACE^E. 

Viola odorata. Settle Bridge 

palustris. Horton, Huntworth 
hirta. Kelcowe 

lutea Malham Moor 

DROSERACE^E. 

Drosera rotundifolia. Helwith Moss 

CARYOPH YLLAC EjE. 

Saponaria officinalis. Austwick 

Silene maritima. Kilnsey Crag and 

Whernside 

Lychnis vespertina. Occasional 



121 



Arenaria verna. Lead Mines 

Stellaria nemorum . Trow Gill and 

Rathmell 

glauca. Malham Tarn 

uliginosa. Giggleswick 

Cerastium semidecandrum. 
triviale. 

MALVACE^. 

Malva moschata. Bolton Abbey 

rotundifolia. Thornton 

HYPERICACE^E. 

Hypericum humifusum. Giggleswick 
Scar 

hirsutum. do. 

montanum. Gordale 

GERANIACE^E. 

Geranium phceum. Wharfe.Clapham 

sylvaticum. Bolton Abbey 

and Malham 

imptiens Paper Mill 

parviflora Langcliffe 

sanguineum. Ltl. Stainforth 



CELASTRACE/E. 
Euonymus Europaeus. 



Feizor 



RAMNACEJE. 

Rhamnus catharticus. Giggleswick 
Scar 

LEGUMINO&B. 

Lotus major. Settle 

Ononis spinosa. Austwick 

Trifolium filiforme Settle 

Hippocrepis comosa. GiggleswkScar 

Vicia sylvatica. Birkwith, Horton 

cracca. Settle 

Lathyrus pratensis. do. 

macrorrhizus. Giggleswick 

ROSACES. 

Dryas octopetala. Arncliffe 

Potentilla verna. Kelcowe 

alpestris. Gordale. 

Rubus chamoemorus. Ryeloaf 

saxatilis. Clapdale, &c. 

Rosa spinosissima. Cave Ha' Wood 

villosa. Stackhouse 

inodora. Cave Ha' Wood 

micrantha. Lodge Gill 

Sabini. Ingleton 

arveosis. Rathmell 



Poterium sanguisorba. Giggleswick 
Scar 

Pyrus aria. Horton, &c. 

torminalis. do. 

ONAGRACE^:. 

Epilobium alpinum Ingleborough 
palustre. do. 

PORTULACE^;. 

Montia fontana. Common 

GROSSULARIACE/E. 
Ribes alpinum. Stainforth 

CRASSULACE^. 

Sedum Rhodiola. Penyghent 

villosum. Swarth Moor 

SAXIFRAGACE^. 

Saxifraga umbrosa. Ling Gill 

aizoides. Chapel-le-dale, 

Ingleborough 

oppositifolia. Penyghent 
Geum Weathercote 

stellaris. Ingleborough 
hypnoides. Winskill Scar 
Chrysosplenium altemifolium 

Common 
Parnassia palustris. Catterick Force 

UMBELLIFER/^. 
Helosciadium nodiflorum. 

Giggleswick 
Pimpinella saxifraga. Common 

magna. do. 

Sium angustifolium. Settle 

CEnanthe crocata. Rathmell 

Silaus pratensis 

Myrrhis odorata. Frequent 

Sanicula Europsea Stackhouse 

CAPRIFOLIACE^. 
Sambucus Ebulus. Austwick 

RUBIACE5!. 

Galium saxatile. Giggleswick Scar 
sylvestre. Malham, &c. 

boreale. Kilnsey & Malham 

VALERIANACE.E . 

Valerianella olitoria. Stainforth Scar 



122 



DIPSACE^!. 

Scabiosa columbaria Settle 

Knautia arvensis do. 

COMPOSITE. 

Tragopogon pratensis Settle, Horton 
Hypochseris radicata do. 

Lactuca muralis Settle, Stackhouse 
Crepis virens Settle 

succissefolia Stainforth 

paludosa Banks of Ribble 
Hieracium vulgatum do. 

Lawsoni Stockdale 

prenanthoides Stainforth 

Force 

boreale Ribble Banks 

umbellatum Settle 

Serratula tinctoria Clapham 

Carduus Marianus Bolton Abbey 

heterophyllus Stackhouse, 

Feizor 

Carlina vulgaris Settle Hills, &c. 

Antennaria dioica Giggleswick Scar 

Gnaphalium sylvaticum Merebeck 

uliginosum Eldroth 

Senecio sylvaticus Cocket Moss 

viscosus Settle 

erucsefolius Runley Bridge 

Saracenicus Ingleton 

Matricaria Parthenium Lawkland 

inodora Malham 

Inula dysenterica Merebeck 

Chrysanthemum segetum Rathmell 

CAMPANULACE.fi. 

Campanula hederacea Gargrave 
Jasione montana Rathmell 

ERICAEjE. 

Andromeda polifolia Horton 

Vaccinium Vitis Idcea Ryeloaf 

Pyrola minor Clapdale, Malham 

OLEACE.E. 

Ligustrum vulgare GiggleswickScars 

APOCYNACEJE. 

Vinca minor Buckhaw Brow 

GSNTIANACEJB. 

Gentiana amarella Giggleswick Scar 
Menyanthes trifoliata HelwithBridge 
Polemonium cseruleum Gordale 



SCROPHULARIACEJB. 

Veronica serpyllifolia Common 

anagallis Giggleswick 

agrestis Frequent 

montana Crow Nest, &c. 

Bartsia Alpina Malham 

Melampyrum sylvaticum Giggleswick 

Mimulus luteus ' Horton 

OROBANCHACE.fi. 

Orobanche rubra Attermire 

minor Malham 

Lathrsea squamaria Cave Ha' Wood 

LABIATE. 

Mentha viridis Ribble Banks 

sativa Settle 

piperita Giggleswick 

arvensis do. 

Origanum vulgare Winskill Scar 

Lamium amplexicaule Settle 

incisum do. 

Galeopsis tetrahit Common 

versicolor Settle 

Calamintha Clinopodium do. 

Stachys Betonica Frequent 

palustris Settle 

sylvatica do. 

Scutellaria galericulata Rathmell 

VERBENACEJ3. 

Verbena officinalis Wennington 

BORAGINE.fi. 

Myosotis repens Penyghent 

Lithospermum officinale Crow Nest 
Symphytum tuberosum Ribble 

Anchusa sempervirens Wharfe, &c. 

PRIMULACEJE. 

Primula farinosa Common 

Anagallis tenella Rathmell 

PLUMBAGINACEJE. 
Armeria maritima Stockdale 

PLANTAGINACE.fi. 

Plantago maritima Kilnsey 

CHENOPODIACE^!. 

Chenopodium rubrum Common 
Atriplex patula Ribble Bank 



123 



POLYGONACK^. 


MELANTHIACEJE. 


Polygonum viviparum Feizor 


Colchicum autumnale Giggleswick 


Rumex aquaticus Helwith Moss 






ALISMACE/E. 


THYMELACE.E. 


Triglochin palustre Cockit Moss 


Daphne laureola (planted) Feizor 


NAIADACE^E. 


mezereon do. do. 


Potamogeton densua Kibble 




pectinatus do. 


EMPETRACE.fi. 




Empetrum nigrum Helwith Moss 
Euphorbia exigua Common 


crispus do. 
perfoliatus do. 
natans do. 


UETICACE*. 


JUNCACE/E. 


Parietaria officinalis Bolton 


Juncus glomeratus Common 


Humulus Lupulus Giggleswick 


effusus do. 




lamprocarpus do. 


AMENTIFERE.E. 


squarrosus do. 


Salix pentandra Giggleswick 
viminalis 


Luzula sylvatica do. 
campestris do. 


nigricans 


Narthecium ossifragum Ingleboro' 


repens 

&C. &C &C. 


CYPERACE/E. 




Schsenus nigricans Ingleton 


CONIFERjE. 


Blysmus compressus Giggleswick 


Juniperus communis Moughton 
Taxus baccata Gordale, &c. 


Scirpus sylvaticus Settle 
Eriphorum vaginatum Giggleswick 
polystachion do. 




Carex divisa Settle 


ORCHIDACE.E. 


pulicaris do. 


Listera cordata Ryeloaf 


stellulata do. 


Epipactis latifolia Giggles\vick 


ovalis do. 


palustris Stackhouse 


curta do. 


Orchis ustulata Settle 


remota do. 


latifolia Common 


intermedia do. 


Gymnadenia conopsea Giggleswick 


teretiuscula 


albida 


vulgaris 


Habernaria latifolia Helwith Moss 


flava Settle 


viridis Giggleswick 


pallescens do. 


Ophrys apifera Skipton 


fulva do. 


muscifera Settle 


binervis do. 


Cypripedium calceolus Amcliffe 


laevigata do. 




panicea do. 


LILIACE^E. 


strigosa 


Alh'um Scorodoprasum Kilnsey 


sylvatica do. 


oleraceum Feizor 


pendula do. 


vineale Giggleswick 


praecox do. 


Convalaria majalis ' Settle 


hirta do. 


Polygonatum multiflorum Calton 


ampullacea do. 


officinale 


vesicaria do. 




paludosa ? 


TRILLIACE/<E. 

Paris quadrifolia P'requent 


riparia ? 



124 



GRAMINE.E. 
Phalaris arundinacea 
Milium effusum 

Agrostis alba Giggleswick 

Arundo phragmites do. 

Sesleria coerulea Giggleswick Scar 



Aira flexuosa 

caryophylla 
Avena alpina 

pubescens 
flavescens 
Triodia decumbens 
Koeleria cristata 
Melica uniflora 

nutans 

Molinia coerulea 
Catabrosa aquatica 
Poa alpina 
pratensis 
nemoralis 
Briza media 
Cynosurus cristatns 
Dactylis glomerata 
Festuca ovina 

duriuscula 
pratensis 
loliacea 

Bromus giganteus 
asper 



Common 
do. 
Settle 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

Giggleswick 

do. 

do. 

do. 

Ingleborough 

Giggleswick 

Common 

Common 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 



Triticum caninum 
Nardus stricta 



do. 
do. 



FILICES. 

Ceterach officinarum Malham Rocks 

Polypodium Phegopteris Clapham 

Dryopteris Giggleswick 

calcareum Settle 

Allosurus crispus Fountains Fell 

Cystopteris fragilis Common 

Polystichum lonchitis Settle 

aculeatum Ingleboro' 

Lastrea Oreopteris Giggleswick 

rigida Ingleborough 

Asplenium viride Giggleswick Scars 

Adiantum-nigrum Ingleton 

Botrychium lunaria Giggleswick 

Ophioglossum vulgatum Stackhouse 

LYCOPODIACE^E. 

Lycopodium clavatum Ingleboro' 
alpinum do. 

Selago do. 

Selaginella 
Selaginoides 

Equisetum palustre Common 

limosum Kibble Bank 
variegatum Swarthmoor 



2$ 



CHAPTER XV. 



DIALECT OF CRAVEN.* 



S the subject of Dialects is an interesting" one, and that 
of Craven has decided claims on an Anglo-Saxon 
origin, and is unusually free from mere slang", a 
cursory review of it may not improperly find a place in 
this volume. 

The tourist will meet with oral specimens in the peculiar 
intonation which no orthography can convey, and as the usual 
dialect specimens in the form of dialogues can hardly be 
redeemed from the charge of vulgarity, a short specimen and 
a selected list only of some of the words and phrases may 
suffice. 

The late Rev. Wm. Carr, of Bolton, an enthusiast in every 
thing relating to Craven, says, ' I am more and more con- 
vinced that my native language is not the contemptible slang 
and patois which the refined inhabitants of the southern part 
of the kingdom are apt to consider it; but that it is the 
language of crowned heads, of the Court, and of the most 
eminent English Historians, Divines, and Poets of former 
ages." That there is some truth in this statement is shown 
by the readiness with which most Craven words may be 
derived from the Anglo-Saxon and other Germanic languages, 
and their constant recurrence in such authors as Gawin 
Douglas, Chaucer, Gower, Lydgate, and early Elizabethan 
Poets. 

Although the natives of Lancashire claim for their dialect a 
Saxon origin, the peculiarly pastoral character of Craven, and 
its freedom from an excess of manufacturing population argue 
in favour of the antiquity and purity of its dialect, and there 
is certainly more of euphony iu the Craven than in the open- 

* From Howson's Guide. 



126 

mouthed dialect of Lancashire. In the district ranging- from 
Halifax to Colne, at Howarth, and Heptonstall, the one 
insensibly merges into the other ; and again in the valley of 
Dent,* towards Sedbergh and Hawes, the Craven gradually 
assimilates itself to the Westmoreland dialect. 

Dr. Whittaker makes the curious suggestion that the two 
nerthern scholars of Strother, whom Chaucer has made the 
subject of his Reeves Tale, sprang from Langstrothdale, and 
says that their dialect, evidently not the language of the 
author, is precisely the modern dialect of Craven, thus : 

" Our Manciple I hope he will be dede, 
Swa werkes aye the wanges in his hede, 
And therefore is I come and eke Alayn, 
We pray you spede us heme in that ye maye ." 

" 1 is full swift as a Raa." 
" He shall not nat skape us bathe." 
"Why ne hadst thou put the Capel in the Lathe." 
And Whittaker adds that he is inclined to believe the story 
a real one, or at least that Chaucer had heard the dialect of 
Alan and John in Solere Hall. 

Home Tooke remarks that Gawin Douglas's language, 
though written a century after Chaucer, must yet be esteemed 
more ancient; even as the present English speech in Scotland 
is in many respects more ancient than that spoken so far back 
as the reign of Queen Elizabeth. So Casaubon says of his 
time, "The Scottish language is purer than the English of the 
present day," where by "purer" he means nearer to the 
Anglo-Saxon. 

As a specimen of the continual occurence of Craven words, 
phrases, and pronunciation in Douglas, note this passage in 
his preface : 

" Thocht sum -wold swarethzt I the text have varyit, 
Or that I have this volume quite miscaryit, 
Or threpe planelie that I come never nere hand it, 
Or that the werk is werst that ever \fand it. 
Be not ouer studious to spy ane mote in myn E. " 

Further quotations from the same author will be found in 
the following brief list of Craven words : 
NEIF. A fist. Islandic, Nefi. 

" Give me your neif, Monsieur Mustard Seed." 

Midsummer Nigkfs Dream. 

l n the VII Vol. of the Doctor an excellent specimen of the Dent dialect is given, entitled "A 
Wonderful Story ot Terrible Knitters ee Dent." 



127 

FAIN. Glad. A.S., Feagn. 

" For which they were as glad of his commyng, 
As foule is faine when the sonne upryseth." Chaucn. 

MELL. Meddle. Fr., Meier. Frequent in Spenser, &c. 

MAAR. More. Pure Dutch. A.S., Mare. 

AN. If. An is imperative of A.S. Anan, to give, as if is 
imperative of Gifan, to give. "An you had an eye you 
might see more detraction at your heels than fortunes 
before you." Twelfth Night. "An I take the humour of a 
thing once, I am like your tailor's needle, I go through." 

Ben fonson, 

GANG. To go. A.S., Gangan. Gang-day, Rogation Day. 
Hence also Gangway in a ship. 

ISTEEAD ON. Instead of. Danish, Istceden. A.S., Stede, a 
place. Commonly in composition as gap-steead, door- 
steead, fire-steead, &c. Of an obstinate fellow, " He'll 
gang through if t'King's it gapsteead." 

VARRA. Very. Fr., vrai. Anciently written veray, both in 
French and English. 

SCUNNER. Dislike. A.S., Ascunian, to shun. 

MACKLY and AHMACKLY. Most likely. A.S., Macan, to make, 
and Lie, like, the origin of the adverbial affix, ly. Likely 
in A.S. would be Liclic, hence they say " Better an like" 
Better than likely. Thus also their " Goodlike" is purer 
Saxon than Goodly. 

WAE WORTH YE. Woe be to you. A.S., Weorthan, which in 
Anglo-Saxon and English is incorporated with Beon, to be. 

"Wo worth the fayre gem vertulesse, 
Wo worth that herbe that doth no bote, 
Wo worth the beaute that is ruthlesse, 
Wo worth that wight trede eche under fote." Chaucer. 

KNAW. To know. A.S., Cnawan. 

EFTER. After. A.S., CEfter. 

ALD. Old. A.S., Eald. Hence local names, Aldgate, 

Aldstone, &c. 

BIGG. To build. A.S., Byogan. Occurs in Chaucer. 
BRA AD. Ye braad o' me. You are like me, i.e., you are of the 

same breed as me. A.S., Broeden. 
KNOLL. To ring a funeral bell. A.S., Cnyllan. Hence 

also Knell. Toll, absurdly derived from Tollo, is a 

corruption of Knoll. 
BAUK. A beam. Teutonic, Balcke. 



128 

BEEAL. To cry out. A.S., Boel, Grief. In Chaucer. 
ESH. The ash. Teutonic, Esche. 

ASK. Dry. Perhaps from Teutonic, Ascha, Ashes. 

TAK UNCUTH. To take offence. A.S., Uncuth, strange, un- 
usual, uncouth. Of a cross child, "Tothers hes been good 
uns maks us tak uncuth at it." 

WALLOW. Insipid. A.S., Walgen, to loathe. 

PODDISH. A slight corruption of pottage, not porridge. Fr., 
Potage. " Poddish is wallow bout saut." 

RIGGING. A roof. A.S., Wrigan, to cover. 

SWOP. To exchange. A.S., Swipan, to sweep; where by 
consent of the parties each sweeps off his share. 

SCALE. To spread. A.S., to divide or separate. "I shall 
tell you a pretty tale. It may be you have heard it, but 
since it serves my purpose, I will venture to scale it a little 
more. " Coriolanus. 

ELSE. Short for Alice. Curiously enough the English word 
"else" is in like manner contracted from the ancient Alyse, 
Alys, Alles, Elles. 

PLEEAN. To complain. A.S., Pleah, a plea. 

CLEM. To hunger. A.S., Clemian. 

YEAT. A gate. A.S., Geat. G in Anglo-Saxon was in- 
differently pronounced as G or Y 

YOWL. To howl. Gyllan. (See Peat above). Howl is as likely 
to have sprung from this source as from the Latin Ululo. 

NESH. Tender, squeamish. A.S., Nescian, to soften. 

KITLING. Kitten. Ling, a Saxon diminutive. 

LEET. Light. A-S,, Leant. 

KITTLE. An inversion of " tickle." 

TEW. To plague, to weary. A.S., Tawian, to tug. 

AUMRY. Shady. Fr., Ombre. 

OUT. Ought, anything. A.S., Awhit. "Too mich of owt's 
good forjnowt."- - Craven Proverb. 

MUCK. Dirt, A.S., Meox. "Better hev a bairn wi' a mucky 
faace an wesh it nooas off." Craven Proverb. 

BOOK. Bulk. " 'Bout book o' my neif." L not sounded, as 
in balk, walk, &c. "Buick" in Scotland. 
' ' Your tender buick I hafpit warm, 
Wi' a' a mither's care. " 

SHIPPON. A cow-house. From sheep-pen. Shipin in Chaucer. 
SAGE. G, hard. To saw. A.S., Saga. 

SHOG. To ride at a slow trot without rising in the stirrups. 
From Shock, and perhaps more correct than jog. 



129 

OUTSHUT. An outbuilding-. A.S., Scythan, to throw forward. 
"Some folks hes lile brains, and some's an outshut," i.e., an 
additional department for brains. Craven Proverb. Hence 
also the expression, "To get shut of," is as correct as "To 
get quit of." 

INSENSE. To enlighten. An expressive word and of obvious 
derivation. 

SPEAN. Wean. Perhaps from Spoon. 

STICKLEBUTT. Immediately, quickly. As swiftly as an arrow 
piercing the butt, or mark. When the bow was the Saxon's 
weapon, every village had its practising ground, with two 
raised mounds on which the butts were placed ; and how 
commonly we find, to this day, a place in or about a village 
called the "Butts." Horton, Clapham, &c. 

PRYALL and RYALL. Three together. A corruption of Triad. 

HAIT. Hot. A. S., Hat. " Hait as fyre.'' Douglas. 

LEE. A lie. "That war ane manifest lee." Douglas. "If 
leein wor choking thear'd be hard gasping." Craven Proverb. 

BE. By. It was anciently written indifferently Be or By. 

FLITE. To scold. A.S., Flytan. "Qua cannot hald thare 
pece are fre to flite." Douglas. 

SILE. To strain, as milk. A.S., Syl, filth. 

HULL. A small building. Goth., Hulgan, to cover. 

WHITTLE. To cut sticks. From the instrument, Whittle. 
( A.S., Hwytel, a knife. 

QUARRIL. A pane of glass. Fr., Quarreau. 

PARLOUS. Perilous. "By'r Lakin a parlous fear." Mid- 
summer Night's Dream. Most commonly used with tale or 
speech, in which case it may be parless, peerless. 

TINE. To shut. A.S., Tinian. 

FEST. To send out, or bind as an apprentice. A,S., Fcest, 
fixed. 

FET. Fit. Hence Fettle, to mend. 

SCHOO. She. A.S., Seo. 

"Albane 
Scho did behald amyd the fieldis plane." Douglas. 

WHARFRA. Wherefrom. 

" His fens lukis about on every side, 

To see quarfra the grounding dart did glide. " Douglas. 

LIEF. Have rather. A.S., Leof, participle of Lufian, to love. 

" I had as lief not be, as live to be in awe 

Of such a thing as I myself. " Julius Ctzsar, 
WICK. Alive. A'.S., Cwic. 



TAAH. Toe. A.S., Ta. 

LIG. To lie. A.S., Liegan. 

STAG. A young" horse. A.S., Stigan, to ascend. Coming" on, 

as the farmers say. 

STIDDY. An anvil. A.S., Stcedig, firm, fixed. 
STIRK. A young- heifer. A.S., Stirc. 
BOUT. Without. See Poddish. A.S., Be-utan, be out. But is 

the same word, and now corruptly used for the ancient Bot, 

from Botan. 

"Bot thy werke shall endure in laude and glorie, 
But spot or fait condigne eterne memorie." Douglas. 

FAUT. Fault. Fr., Faute. 

GUILIVAT. Vessel in which beer is left to ferment. Perhaps 
from Gill, the Ground Ivy, Glechoma hederacea, a plant 
formerly much used in domestic brewing 1 . Apropos of the 
word, a Craven Fable may close this little dissertation on 
Craven words. 

T'MOUSE I T GUILEVAT. 

Ane day thear wor a mouse tumell'd intut guilevat, an t'cat 
sat a watchin on't. When it wor like to drown, it ses tut cat, 
"If thou'l help me out, an let me shak mesel, thou's he* mah." 
Saah t'cat agreead, an helpt it out, bud t'mouse ran off to it 
hole. Ses t'cat, I thowt thou sed I mun he' thah." "Hei!" 
says t'mouse wi' a gurn, " Bud folk ses owt when (her f drink." 

Dr. Whittaker regrets that he was not able to retrieve any 
remains of traditionary poetry written by natives of Craven. 
"Their country," he says, "was romantic, their manners 
pastoral, and their dialect poetical." There are a few remains 
of the kind current, but they are mere doggerel, and yet there 
is no doubt but that approaching so nearly as it does to the 
Scottish, the Craven dialect might be a proper vehicle for the 
ballad, or the pastoral song, after the manner and the metres 
of the immortal Burns. 

The following may serve as specimens. 

TO A COVEY OF MOORGAME. 

Iz't fear o' me at maks ye spring 
Wi' sich a fearful flap ot' wing ? 

My bonny brood ! 
Log saaf ith' beald ot' greenest ling, 

Yer dainty food. 



I'ze'ower fond o' life mesell, 
An freedom too, to gang an fell 

The likes o' ye ; 
But thear's a day at I can tell, 

When mooargam dee. 

Whent' murdrous gun wi' sullen boom, 
Shall send ye tul an eearly doom, 

An ye's be med 
To lig it' spooartsman's bag, ith' room 

Ov heather bed. 

It izn't lang sin first ye fand 

Ther wings wad lift ye frae the land, 

Toth' realms ov air ; 
An soon ye'll fynd at shutter's hand 

Al wound 'em sair. 

Gay soon yer e'en nae mair sail greet 
The dewy morning's misty leet, 

Ont' mooarland wide : 
An ye sail gang nae mair at neet 

Ith' ling to hide. 

In vain when cruel foes ye've kent, 
Ye'll trembling steal along the bent, 

Or cower ith' bog : 
Wi' a" yer ways they're weel acquent, 

Baith man an dog. 

Thear's lambs at's killed wi't butcher's knife, 
An ducks bith' hand oth' farmer's wife 

Are doomed to dee : 
Ye're favoured seur, to lose your life 

Bith' Quality. 

Bud od ye now, an dooant be flaad, 
I izn't ane of sporting traad, 

To hunt ye down ; 
I'ze nobbut luk whar ye wor laid, 

An then I'ze boun. 



TO THE CRICKET. 

Ye gamsome louper, what inspires ye 
Wi' yer feckless chirping sang ? 

The dreest iv'ning niwer tires ye, 
And the neet-watch ne'er is lang. 

Is't prompted be domestic joyance, 
An the hearthstaan ken'd saa weel ? 

Or cos ye fear nae cold's annoyance, 
Nor the girds o' clemming feel? 



It's said ye're linked wi' ties mysterious 

To the haam ye lang frequent, 
An nowt can happen, gay er serious, 

Bud ye're gifted weel to ken't. 

I'd fain believe it ; mair betoken, 

Iv'ning hours ye love the best, 
When words of household love outspoken 

Lull the jarring thowt to rest. 

Ah ! lile ye mak o't sun's bright peeping 

Through the oppen kitchen door, 
Ye're ligging warm, an snugly sleeping 

Underneath the kitchen floor. 

Bud twileet comes and shadows flicker 

On the snodly whitewesh'd wa' ; 
An then ye wakken wick and wicker, 

An yer merry playmates ca'. 

Then ower is a' the household stirring, 

Then yer chirping sangs are rife, 
An chime wi't clock, and 't cat low purring, 

An the voice o' bairn or wife. 

Oh ! could these haamly sounds sae quiet 

Break upon the wanderer's ear, 
I" loneso e haunts, or scenes o' riot, 

Seur they co' the starting tear. 

They'd bring to mind i' tones o' sadness, 

A' the lang-forgotten past, 
The joys o' haam, and childhood's gladness, 

An the time o' parting last. 

As a further illustration of the dialect of the Craven distric t 
we give a poetical sketch from the popular little volume 
"Poems in the Craven Dialect by Tom Twisleton," the 
third edition of which may be had from the publisher of 
this Guide. 



HUSBAND AND WIFE ; 

OR, "WHARIVVER HEV YE BEEN?" 

Wife. 

WHARIVVER hev ye been to, ye maupin' owd tyke ? 
For ye've grown sich a trail-tripe, I niwer saw 't like ; 
An' here I've bin waitin', expectin' ye soon, 
An' t' supper's bin ready an hour an' aboon. 
But it's just like ye men I declare ye've naa thowt : 
This tooast 's bin by t' fire till it's pined fair to nowt 
When ye'll come yan can't tell, if ye're nobbut yance gaan ; 
An' thi* tea 's bin i' t' pot whal it 's cowd as a staan. 



133 

There's naa gittin' a meal at reight time au through t' day, 
For as true as I 's here, ye're allus away. 
There's nae puttin' up wi't, ye're grown sich a ganger ; 
But I've med up my mind 'at I'll stand it naa langer. 

Husband. 

Now, praytha wisht Betty don't mak sich a din ! 
Thou macks t' house like a Bedlam when a boddy comes in ; 
It 's naabody's neck if yan be rayther laat, 
I'm sewer it 's nowt that needset thee agaat. 
I met wi' our Tommy a-gangin' past t' Ploo, 
An' we caud in an' gat an odd dobbin or two ; 
An' wi' talkin" ower t' markets, an' farmin' an' stock, 
I gav it na thowt whal it struck ten o'clock ; 
When I sed, "Is that ten? I mun gang reight away, 
Or our owd woman '11 hev summat to say. " 
Saa I tuck up my glass, an' I drunk what was in it, 
An' I com out o' t' house i' less 'an a minute. 
Thou's hed nowt to do nobbut sit at thy eease, 
Saa let it drop, Betty ; now do, if ta pleease ! 

Wife. 

Let it drop ? nay, nut I it wad mack ought fair mad, 

Ye're grown just as rakish as ony young lad. 

Ye may say what ye will, I declare it 's a shaam 

That an owd man like ye cannot stop maar at haam j 

Owt 't ye hev to do, ye mud do whal its leet, 

An' not stop out trailin' whal this time o' t' neet. 

Ye keep me up waitin' here times without end, 

An' ye grow warse an' warse, 'stead a tryin' to mend ; 

But if I sud hev ye mich ofter to tell, 

I'll to bed, an' I'll leave ye to fend for yerseL 

Husband. 

Now, Betty, my lass, do praytha be quiet ! 
For thou drives sich a noise, an' thou macks sich a riot, 
Fooaks comin' down t' street '11 hear iwrything plain, 
An' they'll say 'at yon two 's agaat differin' again. 
For thou talks sich a height, thou yowls, and thou squeeaks, 
Yan mud hear thee a mile an' a hauf when ta speeaks. 
When yan does come haam quiet, it wad be a capper 
If thy tongue didn't gang just like a bell-clapper. 
But next time I'se out, now just let nowt be said, 
Git thy supper at t' time, an march off to bed ; 
I can do varra weel be mesel, I don't doubt it ; 
If I can't mack my supper, I'll e'en do without it. 

Wife. 

That's just what yan gits when yan's done all yan can ; 
They're weel 'at 's not pestered at au wi' a man, 
Yan may sit up an' bother, an' niver na eease, 
An' when yan's done au yan niwer can pleease. 
Ye think yan sud humble whatiwer ye say, 
But I tell ye owd lad, at ye'll see different play. 



134 

But I'll off to bed, for its time I war thaar ; 

If ye sit up an' grummle au neet, I don't caar. 

Whatiwer ye do, ye think yan sud say nowt ; 

But I tell ye, owd lad, 'at ye'll finnd yer mistack out ! 

Husband. 

Ay ! praythee be gangin 1 ; git out o' me sect ! 

An' don't stand thaar preeachin* an' talkin' au neet ! 

Look as foul as ta likes, I don't caar a pin, 

I'se just suit mysel what time I coo in. 

What occasion hes thou to set up thy faace ? 

Thee mind thy awn business, an' keep thy awn plaace ! 

If I hedn't gone out it wod just a bin t' saam, 

For thou's niwer at eeas when I do stop at haam. 

Thou's allus at grummle, thy tongue's niwer still ! 

I's fair stoad wi' t' sound, an' it seems thee reight ill. 

But yan needn't expect mich plezzure o' life, 

When yance yan gits teed to an ill-temper'd wife ; 

An' to allus put up wi' yer queerness an' scorn, 

It wad fair mack a chap wish 'at he'd niwer bin born. 

Wife. 

Nay, praya now drop it ! for I've heeard quite enough, 

An' rayther too mich o 1 that senseless stuff. 

I think 'at ye've said near enough about me, 

An" I's sure I's not hauf as ill-natured as ye ; 

For ye gang out, an' stop out, here hour efter hour, 

An' then ye come haam saa surly and sour ; 

If yan say hauf a word 'at ye don't want to hear, 

Ye're as crabbed as a wasp, an' ye growl like a beear. 

It wad seem ye as weel if ye left yer ill-nature' 

Whar ye gat au yer drink, ye ill-temper'd cratur ! 

But thaar ye'll be pleasant wi' au 'at ye see, 

An' come haam an' bring yer ill-natur' to me ; 

If I say hauf a word i' my ahn self-defence, 

Ye storm like a madman, an' talk wi' na sense. 

But say what ye will, an' do au ye can, 

I'll niwer be trod under foot wi' a man ! 

An' t' next time ye gang, au 'at I hev to say, 

Is, "come haam better temper'd, or else bide away." 

Ye needn't to think I's be ill off about ye ; 

If ye niwer come back, I can put on without ye 




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ADVERTISEMENTS. 




FAMILY GROCERS, 

SETTLE. 

A. & S. have always in stock 

SCHWEPPE'S AERATED WATERS, 

CUFF'S LEMONADE, SODA, & POTASS WATERS, 
In Syphons. 

ROSE'S LIME JUICE &. LIME JUICE CORDIAL, 

CROSSE AND BLACKWELL'S 

JAMS, JELLIES, SOUPS, &c., 

i&nntleg & palmer's 



AND 



of every description. 

PERFUMES, BRUSHES, SPONGES, and all 
TOILET REQUISITES. 

$mrriptt0ns antr Jatnilg 

Carefully prepared with Genuine Drugs. 

P A T E 11 T ' MEDICIN 

In stock or procured on the shortest notice. 



ro 

es 



!Z3 
CfQ 



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CD 



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ADVERTISEMENTS. 




MARKET PLACE, 

SETTLE 



3 yc 'UJ3.JM.JJ. 
SALESMAN, 

|Jr0bi;si0n antr Italian S8art|j0:itsematt, 

/^0(//?, AffVIZ., AND PROVENDER. 
FRESH GERMAN BARM every Monday & Thursday. 

WHOLESALE AGENT FOR 
MYER'S ROYAL CATTLE SPICE, 

P. W. BARR'S DOG BISCUITS, 

CARR & Co. & PEEK FREAN'S BISCUITS, 
TERRY & SON'S CRAVEN & OTHER SWEETS, 

CROSSE & BLACKWELL'S AND 
EDWARD PINK'S GOODS IN GREAT VARIETY. 

LI-QUOR TEA COMPANY, 
One handsome Book given with every Three Pounds. 



PRICE'S, FIELD'S AND OTHER CANDLES. 

BRUSHES, &c., always on hand. 

A good stock of using 

POTATOES, GREEN GROCERIES & FRUIT. 

A large quantity of 



And other Garden Requisites. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



SETTLE 



CA * *LYA* x *X_x J*\ JU , JU JU 



PROPRIETOR. 



n 4 



Of the best quality. 



Every accommodation provided for Tourists in the Craven 

district. 

HORSES AND CONVEYANCES LET OUT ON HIRE. 



R. T. ELLERSHAW, 

DRAPER, 

LANGCLIFFE AND SETTLE, 

Begs most respectfully to thank the inhabitants of Langcliffe, 
Settle, and the neighbourhood for their liberal patronage 
during the time he has been in business and to inform them 

that he has 

OPENED A BRANCH SHOP 

IN NEW STREET, SETTLE, 

And hopes to be favoured with a continuance of their 
patronage and support. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 





M. , U, O xt 

PORTRAIT & LANDSCAPE 



f 





MARKET PLACE, 

SETTLE. 



VIEWS OF 

Settle and District, Giggleswick, Clapham, 

Gordale, Malham Cove, 
Weathercote, Thornton Foss, Catterick, 

Stainforth and Scaleber Fosses, 

Attermire, Victoria Cave, Skipton Castle, 

Bolton Abbey, &c,, &c. 

SOLD ALSO BY 

H. GORE, Bookseller, &c., 

DUKE STREET AND NEW STREET. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



To Collectors of Topographical Works 

AND OTHERS. 




JlHiTAKER's HRAVEN, 

THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF THE 

DEANERY OF CRAVEN, 

In the County of York, by THOMAS DUNHAM WHITAKER, L.L.D., F.S.A., 
Vicar of Whalley, Lancashire. Third Edition with many additions and 
corrections, edited by A. W. MORANT, F.S.A., F. G. S., &c., and with chapter 
on the Geology, Natural History, and Pre-historic Antiquities, by L. C. MIALL, 
F. G. S. , Profossor of Biology in the Yorkshire College. 

THE New Edition of this fine work contains all the 
old pictures and letterpress with consideiable 
additions and corrections. The new engravings are 
executed by well-known artists, and the book is 
printed in a superior manner. 

It is well known that the old edition of Whitaker 
rose in price to eight times its original cost and any 
copies on sale were the objects of keen competition. 

I have a few copies left which will be offered for a 
short time at the published prices. 

Every person who is at all interested in the district 
ought to possess a copy of ' Whitaker' and secure this 
last opportunity of obtaining one before the inevitable 
rise in price. As an investment alone the offer is worth 
consideration. The prices are 

4to cloth boards 3 3 o 

4to bound half morocco, cloth sides 440 

Do. do. in 2 vols., 

with pedigrees mounted on linen 550 

HENRY GORE, Duke Street, SETTLE. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



FLYING HORSE SHOE HOTEL 

CLAPHAM STATION. 



r HIS HOTEL is most conveniently situated for parties 
who wish to explore the most romantic part of York- 
shire. The proprietor has the privilege of showing 
Ingleboro' Cave which is one of the greatest curiosities 
in the kingdom. The district abounds in attractions for the 
Botanist, Geologist, and lover of the beauties of nature, and a 
week or more may be most enjoyably spent in exploring those 
in the immediate neighbourhood of this Hotel. 

r B TROUT FISHING 

In the Wenning, close at hand. 



HORSES, CONVEYANCES, GUIDES, &c. 
FAMILIES ACCOMMODATED BY THE WEEK OR MONTH. 



Trains 45 minutes from Skipton and the same 

from Lancaster, 
Postal Address CLAPHAM, Lancaster. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



The only Establishment in the North where 100 high 

class Instruments can be bought at prices commonly 

charged for inferior made Instruments. 

Morland Brothers, 

COUNTY Music SALOON, 

(Opposite the Town Hall), 

LANCASTER, 

Are the Agents in LANCASTER, SETTLE, and neighbour- 
hood, for Broadwood, Collard, Erard, Hopkinson, Bnnsmead, 
and every other RELIABLE Pianoforte Maker, 

Chappell, Alexandre, Trayser, Cesarini, Mason & Hamlin, 

Estey, Geo. Wood, and every RELIABLE Harmonium and 

American Organ Maker. 

50 PIANOFORTES 

From 20 to 150 Guineas, and 

4^0 ]3mrmrmmm$ nnir Jtmsrinm Srgatts 

From 5 to 50 Guineas, for the Cottage, School, or Mansion. 



Every Instrument personally selected in 
London. 

(Dltr Instruments taken in 

| .ffeWFVfcffeW 

MB fl 9 H 

Visit all parts. 




Repairs of every description skilfully executed. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



TO 



HIP* TVT ID *V /^ F\ ID T? 
JCa iSI Jtx, X Ur U Jut, Jca 



(LATE WlLDMANS) 
KEEPS IN STOCK ALL VARIETIES OF 

FISHING TACKLE 

ARTIFICIAL FLIES 1/6 per dozen. 
MINNOWS, i/- and 1/6 each. 

Tackle for Live Minnows, Worm Tackle, Reel Lines 
In great variety. 

From 6d. upwards. 

NEW INN HOTEL, 

O T.J A P H A. M . 



Tourists and Families travelling in Yorkshire will find very superior 
accomodation, combined with moderate charges, at this Hotel. It has recently 
been improved and enlarged. It is situated in the very heart of the finest 
scenery in Yorkshire, the celebrated Ingleborough and Weathercote Caves, 
Gaping-gill Falls, &c., all being within an easy walk of the Hotel. The 
picturesque and romantic grounds of James Farrer, Esq., Ingleborough, to 
which visitors to the Hotel have access. 

There is excellent Trout Fishing close to the Hotel. 

AND CONVEYANCES FOF^ WIRE. 
f0r ic-ftc arties. 



THOMAS SCOTT, PROPRIETOR. 

Postal Address, CLAPHAM, LANCASTER. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



I N G L E T O N 



COMMERCIAL & POSTING HOUSE. 



This Hotel a new and stately erection is fitted up with every comfort and 
convenience to meet the growing wants of commercial gentlemen and 
visitors. It contains five spacious sitting rooms, fourteen bedrooms, coffee 
room, smoke rooms, bath rooms, and every other accommodation, and has 
lately been re-furnished and renovated. 

EXCELLENT FISHING. Tickets may be had at the Hotel. 




This old-established Hotel is situate in MAIN STREET, INGLETON, and 

affords 

EXCELLENT ACCOMMODATION FOR TRAVELLERS, TOURISTS, ETC. 

It has recently been greatly enlarged, several additional Sleeping and Sitting 
Rooms having been added to it., and is now calculated to accommodate double 
the number of visitors, &c., that it has heretofore done. 

There is also a large and capacious BILLIARD ROOM attached. 

It has for upwards of half a century had the reputation of being one of the 
best conducted Commercial Hotels in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 

POST HORSES, TRAPS, CARRIAGES, WAGONETTES &c. 

The above Hotels are only about 100 yards apart and within three minutes walk 
from the railway station. 



Proprietor 



T. REDMAYNE. 



Ingleton is situated almost in the centre of a beautiful, romantic, and sa- 
lubrious district, within one hour's walk from the summit of Ingleborough. 

It affords excellent fishing, trout, &c. the rivers Doe and Greta flowing 
through the village. 

It is within easy distance of the mountains Whernside and Pennyghent ; 
also the Natural Caves Weathercote, Yordas, Bruntscar, Douk Cave, Hurtle- 
pot, Jingle-pot, and other Caves in the beautiful valley of Chapel-le-dale. 

Thornton Force and the beautiful waterfalls and romantic scenery of 
Beazley may be reached in half-an-hour's walk. 

All lovers of natural curiosities may spend many weeks in visiting the 
romantic scenery in this district. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



VICTORIA CAVE. 

The results already achieved are before the public in the reports of the British 
Association, in Professor Boyd-Dawkins work on "Cave-Hunting," in the 
Geological portion of a new edition of " Whitaker's History of Craven, " by 
Professor L. C. Miall, and in other works. 

The great interest in the Victoria Cave lies in the long succession of events 
represented by its contents, which are of the greatest importance to the historian, 
the antiquary, and the geologist The bearing of some of the facts elicited is 
still under discussion, but briefly the general results may be described as follows 
The fine collections made here and deposited in the Museum of Giggleswick 
School illustrate the occupation of the country and of the cave at intervals, by 
the early English, Roman, and Celtic populations ; then further back by many 
ages are found the remains of people who used the newer type of stone imple- 
ments. In beds of earlier age we have evidence of the occupation of Yorkshire 
by the reindeer and the grisly bear in times immediately succeeding and probably 
preceding the development of a great ice-sheet in the north of England. Still 
further back we are enabled to decipher the record of a remotely distant age 
when man was living on the same ground with the great cave-bear, the hyaena, 
elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, bison, and other animals. The cave is 
unique in possessing data showing the existence of man in the North of England 
before these cold conditions came on which covered the Northern Counties with 
a thick mantle of ice. 

THE LANCASTER GUARDIAN 

ESTABLISHED 1837. PRICE id. 

The Guardian is distinguished by the accuracy and fulness 
of its LOCAL REPORTS, by its complete record of DISTRICT 
INTELLIGENCE, and it seeks to keep its readers well 
informed on the POLITICAL, GENERAL, and LITERARY 
NEWS OF THE WEEK. 

TO ADVERTISERS. Having- been established over 40 
years, the Guardian has gained a very eminent position as a 
Family Newspaper and an influential medium for Advertise- 
ments Its circulation has now so largely increased in all 
directions, and amongst all classes, that it has been recognised 
as THE BEST ADVERTISER in North Lancashire, the 
adjoining districts of Westmorland and the West Riding of 
Yorkshire, and particularly in Lunesdale, Craven and Ribbles- 
dale. 

The Guardian is issued at an earlier hour on Friday, in order 
to permit its despatch by the afternoon trains, but subsequent 
editions will be issued when required by the arrival of Later 
News and Local Reports. 

Guardian Office, Church Street, Lancaster. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 




IN EVERY VARIETY OF STYLE, 



WITH DESPATCH. 



Ruled to pattern, with printed headings, and bound to order. 

HENRY GORE, 

BOOKBINDER, MACHINE RULER, &c., 
DUKE STREET, SETTLE. 

POEMS 



IN THE 



CRAVEN DIALECT 

BY TOM TWISLETON. 

THIRD EDITION; WITH AN ADDENDUM, 

CONTAINING 



feg i^etxrg IL 



Paper covers, i/-; cloth, limp, 1/6. 



HENRY GORE, BookseUer, &c., SETTLE. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



HOT-AIR, STOVES. 

s\ 

MESSRS. RIMINGTON & SON, 
ENGINEERS & IRON-FOUNDERS, 

CRAVEN IRON WORKS, SKIPTON, YORKSHIRE, 

Beg most respectfully to inform the Clergy and the Public that they 
are prepared to fix their much approved system of 

HOT-AIR STOVES, 

Which has been used in upwards of 1,000 Churches, Chapels, Schools, and 
Private Residences, at a Moderate Cost 

MOST UNDENIABLE REFERENCES CAN BE FURNISHED OF THOSE 
WORKING, AND PERFECT SUCCESS GUARANTEED. 

TERMS TO BE KNOWN ON APPLICATION. 



TESTIMONIALS. 

Lavington, August 2gth. 

Sir, I have much pleasure in bearing my testimony to the effectual and economical manner 
in which the stoves you have placed in different churches in my diocese have warmed ; and 
also to add 'that they are free from the objection of unsightliness which is fatal to so many 
modes of warming churches. 
To Mr. W. Kimington. I am very truly yours, S. OXON. 

Abingdon, Jan. i/th, 1879. 

Messrs. Rimington supplied the heating apparatus to the large church of S. Helens, Abingdon, 
when it was restored in the year 1873. The church presented great difficulties which Messrs. 
Rimington successfully overcame. We have much pleasure in certifying that, in our opinion, 
the method of wanning adopted in this case was very efficient and successful, 

ALFRED POTT, Archdeacon, Vicar. 
SLADE J. BAKER, Churchwarden. 
This church contains about 270,000 cubic feet of air, and has many large windows. 



I I 

large and contains nve aisies. ror tne iwo winters i was in onice i aia noi nave a complaint 01 
the church being cold. After receiving your instructions, I personally undertook the working of 
the stoves, and my experience gave me th<" very best results. I found that by lighting up at five I 
could get the church well warmed by ten with sufficient heat to last till night. I discovered that 
the consumption of fuel was not very large when the fires were well alight, bright and clear, 
a small quantity of coal added at intervals generated the largest amount of heat, taking care that 
the plates did not get red hot They never smoked or gave off any offensive smell, and are at the 
present time in good working order. I am fully satisfied of the efficiency of your apparatus if 
proper attention is paid to matters of detail, such as looking to the pilot stove and keeping the 
fires bright, and not adding large quantities at a time. 

Yours truly, SLADE J. BAKER, late Churchwarden. 
To Messrs. Rimington & Son, Craven Iron Works, Skipton, Yorkshire. 



if 



Cleat on Vicarage. Cleobury Mortimer, 23rd Jan., 1879. 

Dear Sir, You ask me to say what I think of your heating apparatus which I have just had 
fixed in my church. So far as I can judge from a short trial, (and I can see nothing to get out of 
order], it is the cheapest and best means of warming a church I have ever seen, and I can only 
wish it had been placed in the church from the very first, for it would have saved considerable 
expense and immense inconvenience. 

Yours very truly, 

GEO. P. TURNER. 
Mr. Wm. Rimington, Iron Foundry, 
Skipton-in-Craven, Yorkshire. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



THE 



And WENSLEYDALE STANDARD 

Is the only eight-page Newspaper, and the only Conservative organ, having a 
general circulation in Craven and the adjoining districts of the West Riding of 
Yorkshire, East Lancashire, and the borders of Westmorland. 

The Newspaper Press Directory, the special organ of the trade, says : 
"The Herald circulates generally throughout the West Riding of Yorkshire 
and East Lancashire, principally in Skipton and the Craven district Well- 
arranged and full reports of all occurrences in the district are given with the 
general intelligence of the week ; special attention being given to the markets, 
and matters of interest to graziers, agriculturists, and landed proprietors. " 

The Herald is published on Friday afternoon in time for the evening 
post, and is published through its extensive district by nearly one hundred 
agents, in the numerous towns and populous places within the confines of 
Lancaster, Clitheroe, Burnley, Keighley, Otley, Harrogate, Ripon, Bedale, 
Richmond, and Kendal. 

Although the Herald has a very large and influential circulation, and 
receives the Government and other Public and Official Notices, its scale of 
charges is comparatively low, being as follows : Election and Public Notices, 
6d. per line ; Railway Announcements, Contracts, Sales of Property by Auction 
or Private, 4d. per line ; Entertainments and Trade Advertisements, is. 8d. 
per inch (displayed), or if ordered for a quarter lod. per inch, for a half-year 8d. 
and for a year 6d. per inch, each insertion. 



CRICKET MATERIALS- 




Has on Sale, during the Season, a very large and well-selected 

Stock of 

BATS, BALLS, & WICKETS, 

GLOVES AND GAUNTLETS, 
LEG GUARDS, BELTS, BAT COVERS, 

SCORING BOOKS, AND EVERY CRICKET REQUISITE. 

DARK'S AND DUKE'S BEST MATCH BALLS. 

CLUBS SUPPLIED ON LIBERAL TERMS. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



TO FARMERS. 

ESTABLISHED 1846. 

CONCENTRATED 

Blood & Bone Manure Works, 

STANDISH LOWER GROUND, 

NEAR WIGAN, LANCASHIRE. 



WILLIAM GIFFORD, 

LONG PRESTON, 

Has much pleasure in informing 1 Farmers, Agriculturists, and 

the public that he has been appointed by Mr. ABRAHAM LLOYD, 

the Proprietor of the above Works, his Agent for the sale of 

BOILED and RAW GROUND BONES and special 

ARTIFICIAL MANURES 

For every crop, and hopes to receive a share of their patronage 

These old and established Manures are well known and have 
been extensively used in various parts of England for many 
years and can therefore be recommended with confidence. 

First-class references can be given amongst which the fol- 
lowing gentlemen are selected (being residents of the Craven 
district) who have used the manures with most satisfactory 
results and who have kindly permitted reference being made 
to them : Messrs. W. Todd, Kelber, Coniston ; J. Wilson, 
Halton West; Wm. Parker, Halton West; J. & A. Bell, 
Otterburn ; J. Winder, Gallaber, Hellifield ; T. Holgate, 
Brooklands, Long- Preston : W. Batty, Little Stainforth, Settle ; 
W. Knowles, Kirkby Malham ; H. Morphet, Wigglesworth. 

W. G. has always in stock Smith's celebrated Devonshire Oils, Calf Drinks, 
and Foot-rot Mixtures ; Theobald's Improved Driffield Oils, Cleansing and 
Felon Drinks for Cattle, Powders for Ill-conditioned Horses, Worms, Influen- 
za, &c. ; the well-known Old Jimmy and Whitworth Bottles for sprains and 
bruises ; Castor Oil and Epsom Salts. 

LICENSED DEALER IN PATENT MEDICINES. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



DUKE STREET, SETTLE. 




HENRY GORE, 



( Late 
Has constantly in stock a large assortment of 

^Pramr 38o0ks, anft Cljitrdj 

IN PLAIN AND ORNAMENTAL BINDINGS. 

WESLEYAN HYMNS & SUPPLEMENT, CONGREGATIONAL HYMN 

BOOKS, ETC. 

Any not in stock procured on the shortest notice. 

liyrcms Ancient and Modern, the new < revised editions, 

With and without tunes, and bound with the Book of Common Prayer, in 
plain and elegant bindings. 

THE INGLEBOROUGH CAVE. 

This Cave exceeds all others in this pait of the Kingdom in the variety of 
Stalactites & Stalagmites, Subterranean Waterfalls, Arched Gothic Roofs, Giant's 
Hall, &c. ; the length of the latest discoveries at present reaches icoo yards. 

HENRY COAXES has the privilege of shewing the Cave. Parties visiting 
the Inn will find every comfort and very moderate charges. A week or more 
might be well spent in a locality so abounding in natural curiosities. 

Families accommodated with Apartments in the above-mentioned Inn by 
the week or month. Trout fishing in the Wenning that runs close by the Inn, 
and in the neighbouring streams. The Landlord is privileged to give leave to 
fish. Cars, Guides, Stabling, &c. 

Trains 45 minutes from Skipton, and 45 from Lancaster. 

All parties by rail wishing to visit the above Caves, must apply for Guides 
and Conveyances, if needed, to the Proprietor, at the Inn, Clapham Station, 
to save disappointment, as he is the only person authorised to shew them. 



HENRY COATES, 

Flying Horse Shoe Inn, 

CLAPHAM STATION. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



BAILEY BROTHERS, 

(LIMITED,) 

MARKET PLACE, CLITHEROE, 

Wholesale Grocers & Corn Millers, 

IMPORTERS OF 

|risfr rob American |)r0fri&i0ns, 

Will submit samples and prices to buyers on application. 



They are makers of one of the best and cheapest CATTLE 
SPICES, one trial will prove its superiority : also B. Bros. 

INDIAN STARCH FINISH 

Is a great boon to the Laundry, prevents the iron sticking 1 , 
and leaves a beautiful ivory finish. 



P 



OF ALL THE 



IN THE 



DISTRICT OF CRAVEN 

MAY BE HAD AT 

HENRY GORE'S, (late Wildmans,) SETTLE. 

___ Q 

Cartes, 6d. ; Cabinets, i/-; mounted or unmounted. 

JAMES MAUDSLEY, 



Town Read Farm, LONG PRESTON, 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



NOW READY, ( Revised edition), 184 pp. crown 
8vo. Price 23. 6d., or post free for 32 stamps. 





CHOOL SULORA, 




FOR THE USE OF 



ELEMENTARY 



BOTANICAL CLASSES, 



BY 



W. MARSHALL WATTS, D. Sc. (Lond.) 

Physical Science Master in the Giggleswick Grammar School. 



LONDON: 

SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & CO. ; FREDERICK WARNE & CO. 
SETTLE , HENRY GORE. 

1879. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



PURIFIED 



COUNTRY-MADE BEDDING. 

JOHN TATHAM & SON 



MAKERS OF THE 



FIVE GUINEA 

FEATHER BEDS. 



CREAM LINEN TICK & WHITE FEATHERS 
ALL THROUGH ALIKE. 

Price List of Eighteen qualities of Feather Beds, Ac., on 



application. 



PURIFIED 

HAIR MATTRESSES 



GUARANTEED GENUINE 
And free from all annoying impurities. 
fcT Estimates furnished for Feather Beds, Pillows, Hair or 
Wool Mattresses, Flock Beds, Straw Palliasses, Blankets, 
bheetmgs, Ac., on application. 

JOHN~TATHAM & SON 

BEDDING WAREHOUSEMEN 
SETTLE. 



V 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 

Los Angeles 
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 




315